Folklore, Mythology,

Every mythology teaches us lessons of humanity. It serves as a source to understand the cultural and religious issues that serve as the backdrop for acting of the prophets and because the Spirit of God spoke his word. In each human generation and different geographic locations of the land was a private world of beliefs, superstitions, different cultural assumptions. had a particular vision of the spiritual world that embraced us all. The mythology is the human attempt to see the invisible, to unravel the mystery of existence. In the literature, short stories, poetry, singing, laughter and dance men see the reasons, the colors of life, dreams and fears manifest. This cultural treasure gives us a wonderful opportunity to reread human history from your imagination. And help us to understand the greatest mystery of all time. Christ. His love, his power, his word transcendence of divine wisdom and sensitivity that allowed man to the art of storytelling, not to despise them before hearing them and keep them in your heart, so that his word approaches the myth to liberate man from fiction. God permeates their acts of stories that man fed since childhood by the fantastic tales, when approaching Christ recognized haunted as it surpasses all human stories and at the same time as he allowed the about him, people beware. .. a little of his image …

Folklore, Mythology,

and Heterodox Faiths of the

Armenian Highlands and Neighboring Lands*

Prepared by Dr. Robert G. Bedrosian
Last updated August 31, 2013 *This material is presented solely for non-commercial educational/research purposes.


The following links and their sub-links open in separate windows.

Armenian Folk Beliefs, by Manuk Abeghyan.
Armenian Mythology, by Mardiros H. Ananikian. From The Mythology of All Races Volume VII (New York, 1925).

The Eight Sanctuaries of Pagan Armenia, by A. Carriere (Paris, 1899). David of Sassoun, Armenian epic, translated by Artin K. Shalian (New York, 1964).
A Bibliography of Armenian Folklore, by Margit Abeghian Hazarabedian. From the journal Armenian Review, volume 39, Autumn 3(1986), pp. 32-54.
Download The Oldest Sources of the Armenian Epic, Indo-European Myths and Historical Prototypes, by Armen Petrosyan, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography (Erevan, 1997), in 24 pdf pages. Download here: The Oldest Sources of the Armenian Epic. File size: 2.2 MB.
See also: Selected Writings of Armen Petrosyan.

Iranian Mythology, by Albert J. Carnoy. From The Mythology of All Races Volume VI (Boston, 1917).

Myths and Legends of Iran, by John R. Hinnells, at Encyclopaedia Iranica.
From Encyclopaedia Iranica, multiple authors:
Entries about demons.
Entries about the supernatural. Search Encyclopaedia Iranica

Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, Persian epic, translated by Helen Zimmern (1883).
Analogies in Iranian and Armenian Folklore, by Eugene Wilhelm. From the Spiegel Memorial Volume (Bombay, 1908) pp. 65-83.

Indian Mythology, by A. Berriedale Keith. From The Mythology of All Races Volume VI (Boston, 1917).

Soma among the Armenians, by Robert Bedrosian (2000). Eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus in Ancient Mythologies, by Robert Bedrosian (1993).
Download Vedic Mythology, by A. A. Macdonell (Strassburg, 1897), in 216 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Vedic Mythology. File size: 18.3 MB.
Download Mythological Studies in the Rigveda, by A. A. Macdonell, from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jul., 1893), pp. 419-496 in 79 pdf pages. Download here: Mythological Studies in the Rigveda. File size: 5.9 MB.
The Vishnu Purana, A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition, translated from Sanskrit by H. H. Wilson (Oxford, 1840). At sacred-texts.
Download The Vishnu Purana, translated by H. H. Wilson (Oxford, 1840), in 809 pdf pages. Download here: The Vishnu Purana. File size: 22.4 MB.

Download A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History, and Literature, by John Dowson (London, 1879), in 453 pdf pages. Trübner’s Oriental Series, volume VI. Download here: A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion. File size: 12.6 MB. Download The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India, by William Crooke (London, 1896) in two volumes:

volume 1, in 326 searchable pdf pages. Contents: The Godlings of Nature; The Heroic and Village Godlings; The Godlings of Disease; Worship of the Sainted Dead; Worship of the Malevolent Dead. File size: 15.6 MB; volume 2, in 384 searchable pdf pages. Contents: The Evil Eye and the Scaring of Ghosts; Tree and Serpent Worship; Totemism and Fetishism; Animal-Worship; The Black Art; Some Rural Festivals and Ceremonies. File size: 16.8 MB.


Serpent Worship, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1922), volume 11, pp. 399-423. This is a well-documented series of entries by prominent mythologists: J. A. MacCulloch (Introductory and Primitive, pp. 399-411); W. Crooke (Indian, pp. 411-419); and E. Welsford (Balto-Slavic, pp. 419-423). Aspects of serpent-worship are described in societies from the Far East to the Middle East, Africa, Europe, the Americas, in antiquity and to the early 20th century. Includes, among many other cultures: Chinese, Polynesian, Cretan, Egyptian, Babylonian, Canaanite and Hebrew, Greek, Roman, Celtic. Topics include: 1. Worship of the serpent; 2. The serpent as embodiment of the dead; 3. Serpents in the mysteries; 4. The serpent in magical rites; 5. Demoniac and mythical serpents and dragons; 6. Myths about serpents; 7. Woman and the serpent; 8. Children of serpents; 9. Serpent origin of men. 26 pdf pages. Download here: Serpent-Worship Demons and Spirits, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1922), volume 4, pp. 565-636. Multiple authors on numerous cultures, in 72 pdf pages. Download here: Demons and Spirits.
Ancestor-Worship and Cult of the Dead, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1908), volume 1, pp. 425-467. Multiple authors on numerous cultures, in 44 pdf pages. Download here: Ancestor-Worship and Cult of the Dead.
Magic, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1916), volume 8, pp. 245-321. Multiple authors on numerous cultures, in 78 pdf pages. Download here: Magic.
Charms and Amulets, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1910), volume 3, pp. 409-472. Multiple authors on numerous cultures, in 65 pdf pages. Download here: Charms and Amulets.
Abode of the Blest, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1910), volume 2, pp. 680-710. Multiple authors on numerous cultures, in 32 pdf pages. Download here: Abode of the Blest.
Ages of the World, entry from the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1908), volume 1, pp. 183-210. Multiple authors on numerous cultures, in 29 pdf pages. Download here: Ages of the World.

The Folktale in Ancient Literature, by Stith Thompson. From The Folktale (1946; reprinted 1977), pp. 272-282.
Search Stith Thompson’s Motif-Index of Folk-Literature
(Bloomington, Indiana, 1955-1958) at ruthenia.ru/folklore

Bibliography and Abbreviations for the Motif-Index


Sumerian Mythology, by Samuel Noah Kramer, at sacred-texts.
Download Sumerian Mythology, by Samuel Noah Kramer (Philadelphia, 1944, revised 1961), in 93 pdf pages. Download here: Sumerian Mythology.

Hittite/Hurrian Mythology, by Christopher B. Siren. Urartian and Armenian deities from M. Kavoukjian’s Armenia, Subartu and Sumer (Montreal, 1987).
Download There is interesting material on Urartian and Armenian deities in Y. V. Sandalgian’s Histoire documentaire de l’Arménie des âges du paganisme (1410 av.-305 apr. J.-C.), (Rome, 1917) in two volumes: volume 1, in 429 pdf pages. File size: 11.1 MB; volume 2, in 437 pdf pages. File size: 11.7 MB.
Download Tarkhou chez les anciens arméniens, by Nicholas Adontz. This celebrated article about one of the pre-Christian gods worshipped by Armenians appeared in the journal Revue des études arméniennes 7(1927) pp. 185-194, in 10 pdf pages. Download here: Tarkhou chez les anciens arméniens.
The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, by Morris Jastrow. File size: 2.26 MB.
Babylonian-Assyrian Birth-Omens and Their Cultural Significance, by Morris Jastrow.
Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, by Donald A. Mackenzie. File size: 1.48 MB. Also at sacred-texts: Myths of Babylonia and Assyria.

Download Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, by Donald A. Mackenzie (London, 1915), in 663 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. File size: 50.1 MB.

Download The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon in the British Museum, by R. Campbell Thompson: volume 2, English translations, vocabulary, etc. (London, 1900), in 256 pdf pages. File size: 11.9 MB. Download The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, by R. Campbell Thompson: Both volumes contain English translations, vocabulary, etc. volume 1, (London, 1903), in 290 pdf pages. File size: 7.7 MB; volume 2, (London, 1904), in 248 pdf pages. File size: 5.7 MB.
Download Babylonian Magic and Sorcery, by Leonard W. King (London, 1896), in 396 searchable pdf pages. Texts and translations. Download here: Babylonian Magic and Sorcery. File size: 22.3 MB.
Download Chaldean Magic: Its Origin and Development, by F. Lenormant, translated from the French original with additions by the author (London, 1878), in 450 pdf pages. Download here: Chaldean Magic: Its Origin and Development. File size: 23.5 MB.
Download The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East. With a Translation of an Assyrian Dream-Book, by A. Leo Oppenheim, from Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 46, No. 3 (1956), pp. 179-373, in 196 pdf pages. Download here: The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East. File size: 27.2 MB.
Download A Babylonian Diviner’s Manual, by A. Leo Oppenheim, from Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Apr., 1974), pp. 197-220, in 25 pdf pages. Text, translation, and plates. Download here: A Babylonian Diviner’s Manual. File size: 3.1 MB.
Download Astral Magic in Babylonia, by Erica Reiner, from Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 85, No. 4 (1995), pp. i-xiii + 1-150, in 162 pdf pages. Download here: Astral Magic in Babylonia. File size: 3.6 MB.

Materials for the Study of Extraterrestrial Presence in Human History Based on Ancient Primary Sources, by Robert Bedrosian. Egyptian Magic, by E. A. Wallis Budge, at sacred-texts.

Download Egyptian Magic, by E. A. Wallis Budge (London, 1899), in 264 pdf pages. Download here: Egyptian Magic. File size: 10.0 MB.

Legends of the Gods, by E. A. Wallis Budge, at sacred-texts.

Download Legends of the Gods, by E. A. Wallis Budge (London, 1912). Egyptian texts edited with English translations, in 198 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Legends of the Gods File size: 1.9 MB.

Download The Gods of the Egyptians or Studies in Egyptian Mythology, by E. A. Wallis Budge in two volumes, (Chicago, 1904): volume 1, in 556 pdf pages. File size: 29.7 MB; volume 2, in 556 pdf pages. File size: 25.1 MB. Searchable pdfs. Download The Evil Eye, an Account of the Ancient and Widespread Supersition, by Frederick Thomas Elworthy (London, 1895), in 491 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Evil Eye. File size: 20.1 MB.
Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe, by Donald A. Mackenzie, at sacred-texts.


Theoi Greek Mythology Project, a comprehensive, online reference to the gods (theoi), spirits (daimones), fabulous creatures (theres) and heroes of ancient Greek mythology and religion.
Search Theoi Project

Download The Thunderweapon in Religion and Folklore, by Chr. Blinkenberg (Cambridge, 1911), in 148 pdf pages. Download here: The Thunderweapon in Religion and Folklore. File size: 3.3 MB.
Download Sabazius, by F. Lenormant (Paris, 1875), in 42 pdf pages. French-language study of Sabazius, a sky god of the Phrygians and Thracians. Download here: Sabazius. File size: 3.7 MB.
Download Zoological Mythology, or, The Legends of Animals, by Angelo de Gubernatis (London, 1872) in two volumes: volume 1, in 449 pdf pages. Land animals. File size: 12.7 MB; volume 2, in 464 pdf pages. Land animals continued; air and sea animals. File size: 19.8 MB.
Download The Hare in Myth and Reality: A Review Article, by John Andrew Boyle, from Folklore, Vol. 84, No. 4 (Winter, 1973), pp. 313-326, in 15 pdf pages. Download here: The Hare in Myth and Reality. File size: 1.4 MB.
Download Animals Impregnated by the Wind, by Conway Zirkle, from Isis, Vol. 25, No. 1 (May, 1936), pp. 95-130, in 37 pdf pages. Download here: Animals Impregnated by the Wind. File size: 3.3 MB.

Eugene S. McCartney

Download Some Folk-Lore of Ancient Physiology and Psychology, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Oct. 14, 1918), pp. 18-21; Vol. 12, No. 4 (Oct. 28, 1918), pp. 26-29; and Vol. 12, No. 5 (Nov. 11, 1918), pp. 35-38, in 15 pdf pages. Download here: Some Folk-Lore of Ancient Physiology and Psychology. File size: 1.1 MB. Download Spontaneous Generation and Kindred Notions in Antiquity, from Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 51 (1920), pp. 101-115, in 16 pdf pages. Download here: Spontaneous Generation and Kindred Notions in Antiquity. File size: 1.1 MB.
Download An Animal Weather Bureau, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 12 (Jan. 17, 1921), pp. 89-93, and Vol. 14, No. 13 (Jan. 24, 1921), pp. 97-100, in 11 pdf pages. Download here: An Animal Weather Bureau.
Download Sex Determination and Sex Control in Antiquity, from American Journal of Philology, Vol. 43, No. 1 (1922), pp. 62-70, in 10 pdf pages. Download here: Sex Determination and Sex Control in Antiquity.
Download The Folk Calendar of Times and Seasons, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Oct. 2, 1922), pp. 3-7, in 6 pdf pages. Download here: The Folk Calendar of Times and Seasons.
Download The “Wooden Horse” and Folk-Lore of Touching, from Classical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Nov., 1925), pp. 112-131, in 21 pdf pages. Download here: The “Wooden Horse” and Folk-Lore of Touching. File size: 1.8 MB.
Download Magic and the Weather in Classical Antiquity, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 18, No. 20 (Mar. 30, 1925), pp. 154-157, in 5 pdf pages. Download here: Magic and the Weather in Classical Antiquity.
Download The Classical Astral Weather Chart for Rustics and for Seamen, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 20, No. 6 (Nov. 15, 1926), pp. 43-49, and Vol. 20, No. 7 (Nov. 29, 1926), pp. 51-54, in 13 pdf pages. Download here: The Classical Astral Weather Chart for Rustics and for Seamen.
Download Popular Methods of Measuring, from Classical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 5 (Feb., 1927), pp. 325-344, in 21 pdf pages. Download here: Popular Methods of Measuring. File size: 2 MB.
Download Greek and Roman Weather Lore of the Sun and the Moon, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Oct. 22, 1928), pp. 25-31, and Vol. 22, No. 5 (Oct. 29, 1928), pp. 33-37, in 20 pdf pages. Download here: Greek and Roman Weather Lore of the Sun and the Moon. File size: 1.2 MB.
Download Clouds, Rainbows, Weather Galls, Comets, and Earthquakes as Weather Prophets in Greek and Latin Writers, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Oct. 7, 1929), pp. 2-8, and Vol. 23, No. 2 (Oct. 14, 1929), pp. 11-15, in 20 pdf pages. Download here: Clouds, Rainbows, Weather Galls, Comets, and Earthquakes. File size: 1.3 MB.
Download Greek and Roman Weather Lore of Winds, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Oct. 13, 1930), pp. 11-16; Vol. 24, No. 3 (Oct. 20, 1930), pp. 18-24; and Vol. 24, No. 4 (Oct. 27, 1930), pp. 25-29, in 35 pdf pages. Download here: Greek and Roman Weather Lore of Winds. File size: 2.2 MB.
Download Classical Weather Lore of Thunder and Lightning, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 23 (Apr. 25, 1932), pp. 183-192; Vol. 25, No. 24 (May 2, 1932), pp. 200-208; and Vol. 25, No. 25 (May 9, 1932), pp. 212-216, in 27 pdf pages. Download here: Classical Weather Lore of Thunder and Lightning. File size: 1.7 MB.
Download Greek and Roman Weather Lore of the Sea, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Oct. 2, 1933), pp. 1-6; Vol. 27, No. 2 (Oct. 9, 1933), pp. 9-13; Vol. 27, No. 3 (Oct. 16, 1933), pp. 17-22; and Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct. 23, 1933), pp. 25-29, in 26 pdf pages. Download here: Greek and Roman Weather Lore of the Sea. File size: 1.7 MB.
Download Greek and Roman Weather Lore of Two Destructive Agents, Hail and Drought, from Classical Weekly, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Oct. 1, 1934), pp. 1-7; Vol. 28, No. 2 (Oct. 8, 1934), pp. 9-12; Vol. 28, No. 3 (Oct. 15, 1934), pp. 17-23; and Vol. 28, No. 4 (Oct. 22, 1934), pp. 25-31, in 29 pdf pages. Download here: Greek and Roman Weather Lore: Hail and Drought. File size: 1.8 MB.

Download “Snakestones” and Stone Thunderbolts as Subjects for Systematic Investigation, by Walter W. Skeat, from Folklore, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Mar., 1912), pp. 45-80, in 37 pdf pages. Download here: “Snakestones” and Stone Thunderbolts as Subjects for Systematic Investigation. File size: 1.2 MB. Download Snake Stones, by W. R. Halliday, from Folklore, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Dec. 31, 1921), pp. 262-271, in 11 pdf pages. Download here: Snake Stones.
Download Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, by John Cuthbert Lawson (Cambridge, 1910), in 640 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion. File size: 18 MB.


Zoroastrian Deities and Legends about Them, at Encyclopaedia Iranica:
Ahura Mazda, by Mary Boyce.
Ahriman/Angra Mainyu, by J. Duchesne-Guillemin.
Amǝša Spǝnta/Amesha Spenta, by Mary Boyce. Anahita/Anahid, by Mary Boyce.
Mitra/Mithra, multiple authors.
Apam Napat/Voruna, by Mary Boyce.
Cosmogony/Cosmology in Zoroastrianism/Mazdaism, by Philip G. Kreyenbroek.

The Zoroastrian Religion in Armenia by Mardiros Ananikian, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 1 (1908), pp. 794-802. This article describes Zoroastrianism in Armenia and some Armenian myths, customs, and folklore associated with it. Download The Armenian Parable ‘Zoroaster’s Laughter’ and the Plot of Zoroaster’s Birth in the Literary Traditions, by Arthur Hambartsumyan. From the journal Iran and the Caucasus, Vol. 5 (2001), pp. 27-36. Download here: Zoroaster’s Laughter.
Available on another page of our website is The Republic, Book 10, 613-621, by Plato (c. 429-347 B.C.). This contains the story of Er, son of Armenius, believed to be an echo of the Armenian story of Ara. The Armenian legend of Ara also is available on another page: The Primary History of Armenia.
Download The Myths of Plato, by J. A. Stewart (London, 1905), in 552 searchable pdf pages. Translations and detailed analyses of the myths of Phaedo, Gorgias, Er, Politicus, Protagoras, Timaeus, Phaedrus, the two Symposium myths, Atlantis, and the Earth-Born. Download here: The Myths of Plato. File size: 27.5 MB.
Download “Two Essays on Semiramis,” a pdf file containing two short essays about the deity, mythical and/or historical figure called Semiramis or Shamiram: “The Semiramis Legend” by W. Robertson Smith (English Historical Review (1887) pp. 303-337 and “The Legend of Semiramis” by A. H. Sayce (EHR (1888) pp. 104-113). Discussions of classical and Mesopotamian legends about this woman to whom were attributed numerous cyclopean structures by the Euphrates, Lake Van, and in Iran; description of her cult in Nineveh and in Syrian Hierapolis (Bambyce, Mabbog). Download here: Two Essays on Semiramis, in 25 pdf pages. File size: 3.0 MB.
Download La légende de Sémiramis premier mémoire de mythologie comparative, by F. Lenormant (Belgium, 1872/73), in 78 pdf pages. Download here: La légende de Sémiramis File size: 2.1 MB.
Download Semitic Magic, Its Origins and Development, by R. Campbell Thompson (London, 1908), in 364 pdf pages. Download here: Semitic Magic. File size: 22.2 MB.
Download Mythology among the Hebrews and its Historical Development, by Ignaz Goldziher (London, 1877), in 553 pdf pages. Download here: Mythology among the Hebrews and its Historical Development. File size: 16.7 MB.
Download The Beginnings of History According to the Bible and the Traditions of Oriental Peoples, from the Creation of Man to the Deluge, by F. Lenormant (New York, 1882). English translation of the second French edition, in 640 pdf pages. Download here: The Beginnings of History According to the Bible and the Traditions of Oriental Peoples. File size: 39.9 MB.
Download The Book of Adam and Eve also called The Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, translated from the Ethiopic with notes from the Kufale, Talmud, Midrashim and other Eastern works by Solomon Caesar Malan (London, 1882), in 276 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Book of Adam and Eve. File size: 10.1 MB.
Download The Book of Enoch, translated by R. H. Charles from Ethiopic manuscripts (Oxford, 1893), in 423 searchable pdf pages. Parts of this book date from the 4th century B.C. Attributed to Enoch, great-grandfather of Noah. Download here: The Book of Enoch. File size: 21.3 MB.
El’s Abode: Mythological Traditions Related to Mount Hermon and to the Mountains of Armenia, by E. Lipinski.
References to Eastern Asia Minor in the Bible, by Robert Bedrosian.
Apocryphal Books of the Bible, at sacred-texts.
Download The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English by R. H. Charles (Oxford, 1913), in two searchable volumes: volume 1, Apocrypha, in 708 pdf pages. File size: 51.4 MB; volume 2, Pseudepigrapha, in 898 pdf pages. File size: 53.3 MB.
Download The Testament of Solomon, translated by F. C. Conybeare. From Jewish Quarterly Review volume 11 (1898), pp. 1-45. Study and translation of an apocryphal Old Testament book under-utilized by folklorists. Download here: The Testament of Solomon. File size: 1.5 MB.
Download The Serpent in the Old Testament, by Ross G. Murison, from American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1905), pp. 115-130, in 17 pdf pages. Download here: The Serpent in the Old Testament. File size: 1.9 MB.
Download Totemism in the Old Testament, by Ross G. Murison, from Biblical World, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 1901), pp. 176-184, in 10 pdf pages. Download here: Totemism in the Old Testament.
Download Israel and Totemism, by Stanley A. Cook, from Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Apr., 1902), pp. 413-448 in 37 pdf pages. Download here: Israel and Totemism. File size: 1.6 MB.
Download Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets and Other Old Testament Characters from Various Sources, by Sabine Baring-Gould (New York, 1884), in 460 pdf pages. Download here: Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets. File size: 10.9 MB.
Download from archive.org, various formats available:

Folklore in the Old Testament vol. 1 by James G. Frazer.
Folklore in the Old Testament vol. 2 by James G. Frazer.
Folklore in the Old Testament vol. 3 by James G. Frazer.

Old Testament Legends, by M. R. James (London, 1913).

Download M. R. James’ Old Testament Legends from archive.org. Various formats available. Download here: Old Testament Legends.

Rabbinical Legends, Tales, Fables and Aphorisms, from Flowers from a Persian Garden and Other Papers, by W. A. Clouston (London, 1890). Folk-lore of the Holy Land, by J. E. Hanauer (1907), at sacred-texts.
Jewish Magic and Superstition, by Joshua Trachtenberg (1939), at sacred-texts.
Entry from the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906): Demonology.
Download Louis Ginzberg’s Legends of the Jews (Philadelphia, 1911-1918):

volume 1. Creation to Jacob. File size: 5.4 MB.
volume 2. Joseph to Moses. File size: 4.4 MB.
volume 3. Exodus to the death of Moses. File size: 7.4 MB.
volume 4. Joshua to Esther. File size: 6.1 MB.

Search the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)


Download The Apocryphal New Testament, Gospels, Epistles, etc. not included in the New Testament by its compilers, William Hone (London, 1820), in 280 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Apocryphal New Testament. File size: 12.8 MB. Download The Mythological Acts of the Apostles, translated by Agnes Smith Lewis (London, 1904), in 326 searchable pdf pages. Translation of Syriac and Coptic versions of the lives of the early Apostles, which were transformed over time into magical tales. Download here: The Mythological Acts of the Apostles. File size: 18.6 MB.
Download “The Demonology of the New Testament,” a study by Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, which was serialized in four parts in Jewish Quarterly (1896-1897). Download here: The Demonology of the New Testament. File size: 9.6 MB.
Download “Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan Literature: A Study in Comparative Folk-Lore,” by Leo Jung, serialized in Jewish Quarterly Review 1925-1926, in 169 pdf pages. Download here: Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan Literature: A Study in Comparative Folk-Lore. File size: 11.9 MB.
Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, by Franz Cumont, at sacred-texts.
The Mysteries of Mithraism, by Franz Cumont, at sacred-texts.
Astrology and Religion among the Greeks and Romans, by Franz Cumont, at sacred-texts.
Download Astrology and Religion among the Greeks and Romans, by Franz Cumont. Six lectures: 1. Chaldeans; 2. Babylonia and Greece; 3. Dissemination in the West; 4. Theology; 5. Astral mysticism. Ethics and Cult; 6. Eschatology. Download here: Astrology and Religion among the Greeks and Romans, in 252 pdf pages. File size: 6.0 MB.

The Roman Cult of Mithras, a site by Roger Pearse, at tertullian.org. Download “The Development of Paganism in the Roman Empire.” This study, which appeared as Chapter 12 in Volume 12 of the Cambridge Ancient History [The Imperial Crisis and Recovery A. D. 193-324] (Cambridge, 1939), was written by the historian and theologian A. D. Nock. Chapter 12 “The Development of Paganism in the Roman Empire” includes: 1. Introduction; 2. Official Religion; 3. The Eastern Provinces; 4. The Western Provinces; 5. Tendencies in Popular Piety; 6. Paganism in Thought; 7. Oriental Cults and Christianity; 8. Conclusion. Includes Title Page, Table of Contents, Chapter 12 (pp. 409-449), and the Bibliography for Chapter 12 in 51 pdf pages. Unfortunately, page 421 is missing. Download here: The Development of Paganism in the Roman Empire, in 51 pdf pages. File size: 17.8 MB.
Pagan Christs, by John M. Robertson, at sacred-texts.

Download Pagan Christs: Studies in Comparative Hierology, by John M. Robertson (London, 1903), in 474 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Pagan Christs. File size: 25 MB.

On Isis and Osiris, by Plutarch (1st-2nd century A.D), at sacred-texts.
On Superstition, by Plutarch, at sacred-texts.
Download Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, by E. A. Wallis Budge in two volumes, (London, 1911): volume 1, in 449 pdf pages. File size: 14.4 MB; volume 2, in 460 pdf pages. File size: 21.7 MB.
Download The Serpent Myths of Ancient Egypt, by W. R. Cooper (London, 1873). Download here: The Serpent Myths of Ancient Egypt, in 111 pdf pages. File size: 2.5 MB.
Download Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake-God, and of the Caduceus I, by A. L. Frothingham, from American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Apr. – Jun., 1916), pp. 175-211, in 38 pdf pages. Download here: Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake-God. File size: 4.2 MB.
Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity, by Samuel Sharpe, at sacred-texts.
The Syrian Goddess, by Lucian of Samosata (2nd century A.D.), at sacred-texts.
The Golden Ass/Metamorphoses, by Lucius Apuleius (2nd century A.D.). This is the only Latin novel to survive intact. Full of amusing folk tales, it is also “the only surviving work of literature from the ancient Greco-Roman world to examine, from a first-hand perspective, the abhorrent condition of the lower classes” (Wikipedia article). Contains several references to the area of our interest. At sacred-texts.
Life of Apollonius of Tyana, by Flavius Philostratus (third century A.D.), translated by Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, at sacred-texts.

Download F. C. Conybeare’s translation of the Life of Apollonius of Tyana: volume 1 (London, 1912), in 618 pdf pages, File size: 20.9 MB; volume 2 (London, 1912), in 640 pdf pages. File size: 21.2 MB.


Magical Elements in the Avesta and Nerang Literature, by Antonio Panaino at Encyclopaedia Iranica. Mithraism, by Roger Beck at Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Gnosticism, by Kurt Rudolph at Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Manichaeism and Its Iranian Background, by George Widengren (Cambridge, 1983).
Entries on Manichaeism/Manicheism at Encyclopaedia Iranica:
General Survey, by Werner Sundermann.
The Manichean Pantheon, by Werner Sundermann.
Cosmogony and Cosmology in Manicheism, by Werner Sundermann.
Buddhist Elements in Manicheism, by P. Bryder.
Mithra in Manicheism, by Werner Sundermann.
Missionary Activity and Technique, by Werner Sundermann.

The Book of the Giants, by W. B. Henning. A fragmentary Manichean text, at sacred-texts.
W. B. Henning

Download Mani’s Last Journey, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4 (1942), pp. 941-953. Download here: Mani’s Last Journey. Download An Astronomical Chapter of the Bundahishn, from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 3 (Oct., 1942), pp. 229-248. Download here: An Astronomical Chapter of the Bundahishn. File size: 2.3 MB.
Download The Book of the Giants, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1 (1943), pp. 52-74 Download here: The Book of the Giants. File size: 2.8 MB.
Download The Murder of the Magi, from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (Oct., 1944), pp. 133-144. Download here: The Murder of the Magi. File size: 1.3 MB.
Download The Manichaean Fasts, from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (Oct., 1945), pp. 146-164, in 21 pdf pages. Download here: The Manichæan Fasts. File size: 2.1 MB.
Download Sogdian Tales, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3 (1945), pp. 465-487. Download here: Sogdian Tales. File size: 3.3 MB.
Download Two Manichaen Magical Texts with an Excursus on the Parthian Ending -endeh, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1947), pp. 39-66. Download here: Two Manichaen Magical Texts. File size: 3.9 MB.
Download A Sogdian Fragment of the Manichaean Cosmogony, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2 (1948), pp. 306-318. Download here: A Sogdian Fragment of the Manichaean Cosmogony. MB.
Download Zoroaster, Politician or Witch-Doctor? Ratanbai Katrak Lectures (1949), published London, 1951, in 51 pdf pages. Download here: Zoroaster, Politician or Witch-Doctor? File size: 7.2 MB.
Download The Bactrian Inscription, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1 (1960), pp. 47-55, in 10 pdf pages. Download here: The Bactrian Inscription. File size: 1.2 MB.
Download A Sogdian God, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2 (1965), pp. 242-254 Download here: A Sogdian God. File size: 1.8 MB.

Mary Boyce

Download Zariadres and Zarēr, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3 (1955), pp. 463-477, in 16 pdf pages. Download here: Zariadres and Zarēr. File size: 2 MB.
Download The Parthian “Gōsān” and Iranian Minstrel Tradition, from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 1/2 (Apr. 1957), pp. 10-45, in 37 pdf pages. Download here: The Parthian “Gōsān” and Iranian Minstrel Tradition. File size: 3.8 MB.
Download Some Reflections on Zurvanism, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2 (1957), pp. 304-316, in 14 pdf pages. Download here: Some Reflections on Zurvanism. File size: 1.8 MB.
Download On the Sacred Fires of the Zoroastrians, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 31, No. 1 (1968), pp. 52-68, in 18 pdf pages. Download here: On the Sacred Fires of the Zoroastrians. File size: 2.4 MB.
Download On Mithra’s Part in Zoroastrianism, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1 (1969), pp. 10-34, in 26 pdf pages. Download here: On Mithra’s Part in Zoroastrianism. File size: 3.7 MB.
Download Zoroaster the Priest, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, In Honour of Sir Harold Bailey (1970), pp. 22-38, in 18 pdf pages. Download here: Zoroaster the Priest. File size: 2.4 MB.
Download On the Zoroastrian Temple Cult of Fire, from Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 95, No. 3 (Jul. – Sep., 1975), pp. 454- 465, in 13 pdf pages. Download here: On the Zoroastrian Temple Cult of Fire.
Download On the Antiquity of Zoroastrian Apocalyptic, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1 (1984), pp. 57-75, in 20 pdf pages. Download here: On the Antiquity of Zoroastrian Apocalyptic. File size: 2.9 MB.
Download Priests, Cattle and Men, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3 (1987), pp. 508-526, in 20 pdf pages. Download here: Priests, Cattle and Men. File size: 2.7 MB.
Download The Lady and the Scribe, Some Further Reflections on Anahit and Tir, from Acta Iranica 28, 1988, pp. 277-282, in 5 pdf pages. Download here: The Lady and the Scribe, Some Further Reflections on Anahit and Tir. File size: 1.4 MB.
Download On the Orthodoxy of Sasanian Zoroastrianism, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 59, No. 1 (1996), pp. 11-28, in 19 pdf pages. Download here: On the Orthodoxy of Sasanian Zoroastrianism. File size: 2.7 MB.
Download Further on the Calendar of Zoroastrian Feasts, from Iran, Vol. 43 (2005), pp. 1-38, in 39 pdf pages. Download here: Further on the Calendar of Zoroastrian Feasts. File size: 7.2 MB.

Mazdakism, by Ehsan Yarshater (Cambridge, 1983), online at rbedrosian.com. Khorammis, by Patricia Crone at Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Magic in [Persian] Literature and Folklore in the Islamic Period, by Mahmud Ormidsalar at Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Wikipedia entry: Iranian Folklore. Good summary and links.
Download Bird Lore in Southwestern Iran, by Grace Goodell, from Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 38, No. 2 (1979), pp. 131-153, in 24 pdf pages. Download here: Bird Lore in Southwestern Iran. File size: 2.5 MB.
Download The Mediatory Guile of the Nanny in Persian Romance, by Farzaneh Milani, from Iranian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, The Uses of Guile: Literary and Historical Moments (Spring, 1999), pp. 181-201, in 22 pdf pages. Download here: The Mediatory Guile of the Nanny in Persian Romance.
Download Lightning, Sacrifice, and Possession in the Traditional Religions of the Caucasus, by Kevin Tuite, from Anthropos, Bd. 99, H. 1. (2004), pp. 143-159 and continued in Bd. 99, H. 2. (2004), pp. 481-497, in 36 pdf pages. Download here: Lightning, Sacrifice, and Possession in the Traditional Religions of the Caucasus. File size: 4.9 MB.
Download F. C. Conybeare’s article “The Survival of Animal Sacrifices inside the Christian Church,” from The American Journal of Theology, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan., 1903), pp. 62-90. Focus is on the Armenian Church. Download here: The Survival of Animal Sacrifices inside the Christian Church.


The Syriac Factor in the Development of Armenian Christianity and the Early Sects, by Seta B. Dadoyan. Download “Armenian Paulicianism and the Key of Truth.” This study, which appeared in the American Journal of Theology 10 (1906) pp. 267-285, was written by the historian and theologian Leon Arpee. It is an analysis of information found in Greek and Armenian historical and ecclesiastical sources about the Paulicians, dissident iconoclastic Christians of Western Armenia. Hated and persecuted by both the Greek and Armenian Church establishments and savaged by the Byzantine military, the Paulicians in the 9th century made common cause with the Muslims. They were a power to be reckoned with, doctrinally and militarily, and were never destroyed as an ideological current. Mystical Sufism and extremist (ghulat) Shiism were to develop and thrive in the same geographical area once controlled by the Paulicians. Deported to the Balkans, some Paulicians founded kindred movements such as the Bogomils, and may have had an influence on the development of Protestantism in Europe. The Key of Truth, the Paulicians’ only surviving work of doctrine, is examined in detail. 21 pdf pages. Download here: Armenian Paulicianism and the Key of Truth. File size: 2.5 MB.
The Paulicians and the Muslim Factor, by Seta B. Dadoyan.
Download The Key of Truth, a Manual of the Paulician Church of Armenia. Introduction, English translation, Armenian text, and scholarly notes by Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare (London, 1898), in 412 pdf pages. Download here: The Key of Truth. File size: 21.6 MB.
Download Die Paulikianer im Byzantinischen Kaiserreiche.., by Karapet Ter-Mkrttschian (Leipzig, 1893). Download here: Die Paulikianer im Byzantinischen Kaiserreiche, in 186 pdf pages. File size: 4.4 MB.
Armenia and Armenians in the Byzantine Epic [Digenes Akrites], by Hratch Bartikian.
The Penitential of David of Ganjak, translation and commentary by C. J. F. Dowsett. This is an early 12th century document of major importance for the study of Armenian folk customs and heterodox communities.
Armenian Elements in the Beliefs of the Kizilbash Kurds, by Matti Moosa.
Pagan, Christian, and Islamic Elements in the Beliefs of the Ghulat, by Matti Moosa.
Hamshen before Hemshin: the prelude to Islamicization, by Hovann H. Simonian.
For more on the Hemshin, see also:
   Selected Writings of Hovann H. Simonian.
F. W. Hasluck
Download Plato in the Folk-Lore of the Konia Plain, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 18 (1911/1912), pp. 265-269. Download here: Plato in the Folk-Lore of the Konia Plain.
Download Christianity and Islam under the Sultans of Konia, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 19 (1912/1913), pp. 191-197. Download here: Christianity and Islam under the Sultans of Konia.
Download The Forty, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 19 (1912/1913), pp. 221-228. About the recurrence of the number 40 in Christian and Muslim folk beliefs in Asia Minor. Download here: The Forty.
Download Studies in Turkish History and Folk-Legend, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 19 (1912/1913), pp. 198-220. Download here: Studies in Turkish History and Folk-Legend. File size: 2.3 MB.
Download Graves of the Arabs in Asia Minor, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 19 (1912/1913), pp. 182-190, in 10 pdf pages. Download here: Graves of the Arabs in Asia Minor.
Download Ambiguous Sanctuaries and Bektashi Propaganda, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 20 (1913/1914), pp. 94-119. Download here: Ambiguous Sanctuaries and Bektashi Propaganda. File size: 2.8 MB.
Download The ‘Tomb of S. Polycarp’ and the Topography of Ancient Smyrna, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 20 (1913/1914), pp. 80-93. Download here: The ‘Tomb of S. Polycarp’ and the Topography of Ancient Smyrna. File size: 1.9 MB.
Download Note on Haidar, Khodja Achmet, Karadja Achmet, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 20 (1913/1914), pp. 120-122. About several Bektashi saints with unusual local attributes. Download here: Note on Haidar, Khodja Achmet, Karadja Achmet.

Download Geographical Distribution of the Bektashi, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 21 (1914/1915 – 1915/1916), pp. 84-124. Download here: Geographical Distribution of the Bektashi. File size: 4.2 MB.
Download Stone Cults and Venerated Stones in the Graeco-Turkish Area, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 21 (1914/1915 – 1915/1916), pp. 62-83. Download here: Stone Cults and Venerated Stones in the Graeco-Turkish Area. File size: 2.2 MB.

Download The Mosques of the Arabs in Constantinople, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 22 (1916/1917 – 1917/1918), pp. 157- 174, in 19 pdf pages. Download here: The Mosques of the Arabs in Constantinople. File size: 1.7 MB.
Download Columns of Ordeal, from Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 24, Supplement (1919/1920 – 1920/1921), pp. 68-77. Download here: Columns of Ordeal. File size: 1.1 MB.
Download The Crypto-Christians of Trebizond, from Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 41, Part 2 (1921), pp. 199-202. Download here: The Crypto-Christians of Trebizond.
Download Heterodox Tribes of Asia Minor, from The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 51 (1921) pp. 310-342, in 34 pdf pages. Download here: Heterodox Tribes of Asia Minor. File size: 4.4 MB.
Download Christianity and Islam under the Sultans, in two volumes. Invaluable material on the folklore of Asia Minor: volume 1, (Oxford, 1929), in 439 pdf pages. File size: 17.3 MB; volume 2, (Oxford, 1929), in 544 pdf pages. File size: 32.6 MB.

Download Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, by Garnik Asatrian. This article appeared in the journal Iran and the Caucasus 13(2009), pp. 1-58. Download here: Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds. File size: 2.4 MB. Entry from Encyclopaedia Iranica: Dimli (or Zaza), by Garnik Asatrian.
Download The Gūrān, by Vladimir Minorsky, from Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1 (1943), pp. 75-103, in 30 pdf pages. Study of a Persian-speaking people in the southeastern and southern fringes of Kurdish settlement. Download here: The Guran. File size: 3.9 MB.
Ahl-i Hakk, by Vladimir Minorsky. In this Encyclopedia of Islam entry, Minorsky discusses a heterodox religious faith practised in Asia Minor, the Caucasus, northern Mesopotamia, and western Iran.
Sultan Sahak: Founder of the Ahl-i Haqq, by Matti Moosa.
Download The Influence of Animism on Islam, an Account of Popular Superstitions, by Samuel Marinus Zwemer (New York, 1920), in 289 pdf pages. Download here: The Influence of Animism on Islam. File size: 7.5 MB.
Download The Peoples of Northern and Central Asiatic Turkey, by Leon Dominian. This article appeared in the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, volume 47, No. 11 (1915), pp. 832-871. Includes plates and maps in 49 pdf pages. Download here: The Peoples of Northern and Central Asiatic Turkey. File size: 11.6 MB.

G. E. White

Download Survivals of Primitive Religion among the People of Asia Minor, from the Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, volume XXXIX (London, 1907), pp. 146-166. Download here: Survivals of Primitive Religion among the People of Asia Minor, in 27 pdf pages, some plates. Download The Shia Turks, from the Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, volume XL (London, 1908), pp. 225-239. Download here: The Shia Turks. 17 pdf pages, one plate.
Download Some Non-Conforming Turks, from The Moslem World, volume VIII (New York, 1918), pp. 242-248. Download here: Some Non-Conforming Turks, in 10 pdf pages.
Download Saint Worship in Turkey, from The Moslem World, volume IX (New York, 1919), pp. 8-18. Download here: Saint Worship in Turkey, in 13 pdf pages.
Download Evil Spirits and the Evil Eye in Turkish Lore, from The Moslem World, volume IX (New York, 1919), pp. 179-186. Download here: Evil Spirits and the Evil Eye in Turkish Lore, in 10 pdf pages.

Download A Journey in Dersim, by L. Molyneux-Seel, from Geographical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jul., 1914), pp. 49-68, in 26 pdf pages. Download here: A Journey in Dersim. File size: 3.3 MB.
Download Mysticism and Magic in Turkey, an Account of the Religious Doctrines, Monastic Organisation, and Ecstatic Powers of the Dervish Orders, by Lucy M. J. Garnett (New York, 1912), in 248 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Mysticism and Magic in Turkey. File size: 9.1 MB.
Entries from Encyclopaedia Iranica, multiple authors: Islam and Folklore.
Download Histoire et religion des Nosairis, par René Dussaud (Paris, 1900), in 446 pdf pages. Download here: Histoire et religion des Nosairis. File size: 13 MB.
Download Mysteries of the Nusairian Religion…, by Sulaiman Effendi of Adhanah. Edward E. Salisbury, translator. This is a translation of Sulaiman’s Kitab al-Bakura al-Sulaymaniyya, which appeared in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, volume 8 (1866), pp. 227-308, in 85 pdf pages. Download here: Mysteries of the Nusairian Religion. File size: 3.9 MB.
The Druze and Other Shiite Ghulat Sects: A Comparative Perspective, by Matti Moosa.
Devil Worship, the Sacred Books and Traditions of the Yezidiz, by Isya Joseph (Boston, 1919) at sacred-texts.

Download Devil Worship, the Sacred Books and Traditions of the Yezidiz, by Isya Joseph (Boston, 1919), in 232 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Devil Worship. File size: 6.6 MB.

Download The Cult of the Peacock Angel, a short account of the Yezidi tribes of Kurdistan by R. H. W. Empson (London, 1928), in 242 pdf pages. Download here: The Cult of the Peacock Angel. File size: 5.4 MB. Download Shahid bin Jarr, Forefather of the Yezidis and the Gnostic Seed of Seth, by Eszter Spät, from the journal Iran and the Caucasus, Vol. 6, No. 1/2 (2002), pp. 27-56, in 31 pdf pages. Download here: Shahid bin Jarr, Forefather of the Yezidis and the Gnostic Seed of Seth. File size: 1.4 MB.
Download Malak-Tāwūs: The Peacock Angel of the Yezidis, by Garnik Asatrian and Victoria Arakelova, in 37 pdf pages. From Iran and the Caucasus, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (2003), pp. 1-36. Download here: Malak-Tāwūs: The Peacock Angel of the Yezidis.
Download The Yezidi Pantheon, by Garnik Asatrian and Victoria Arakelova, in 50 pdf pages. From Iran and the Caucasus, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2004), pp. 231-279. Download here: The Yezidi Pantheon. File size: 1.1 MB.
Download The Holy Brotherhood: The Yezidi Religious Institution of the “Brother” and the “Sister” of the “Next World”, by Garnik Asatrian. From Iran and the Caucasus, Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 79-96. Download here: The Holy Brotherhood: The Yezidi Religious Institution of the “Brother” and the “Sister” of the “Next World”, in 19 pdf pages. File size: 2 MB.
Download The Women of Turkey and Their Folklore, by Lucy M. J. Garnett. In two volumes: volume 1 [Christian], in 1118 pdf pages (London, 1890). File size: 25.4 MB; volume 2 [Jewish and Muslim], in 649 pdf pages (London, 1891). File size: 14.8 MB.

Also by Garnett: Download Home Life in Turkey (New York, 1909), in 364 pdf pages. Download here: Home Life in Turkey. File size: 8.8 MB.
Download Turkey of the Ottomans (London, 1911), in 409 pdf pages. Download here: Turkey of the Ottomans. File size: 9.8 MB.
Download Greece of the Hellenes (London, 1914), in 331 pdf pages. Download here: Greece of the Hellenes. File size: 8.9 MB.
Download Balkan Home-Life (New York, 1917), in 345 pdf pages. Download here: Balkan Home-Life. File size: 6 MB.

Download Customs and Manners of the Women of Persia and Their Domestic Superstitions, by James Atkinson (London, 1832), in 124 pdf pages. Download here: Customs and Manners of the Women of Persia. File size: 3.9 MB. Download Persian Life and Customs, by S. G. Wilson (New York, 1900), in 367 pdf pages. Download here: Persian Life and Customs. File size: 6.8 MB.
Download Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, by William Robertson Smith (London, 1903), in 357 pdf pages. Revised edition, with additional notes by Ignaz Goldziher, edited by Stanley A. Cook. Download here: Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia. File size: 5.4 MB.
Download An Initiation Rite of the Sorcerer in Southern Arabia, by C. van Arendonk, from A Volume of Oriental Studies Presented to Edward G. Browne (Cambridge, 1922), pp. 1-5. Download here: An Initiation Rite of the Sorcerer in Southern Arabia.
Download Spirits and Demons in Arabia, by A. S. Tritton, from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 4 (Oct., 1934), pp. 715-727, in 14 pdf pages. Download here: Spirits and Demons in Arabia.


Ethnobotanica

Ethnobotanical Tools in the Ancient Near East, by William A. Emboden, Jr. Gods and Plants in the Classical World, by Carl A. P. Ruck.
Plants and Flowers of Greek Myth, at theoi.com.
The History of the Poppy and of Opium and Their Expansion in Antiquity in the Eastern Mediterranean Area, by P. G. Kritikos and S. P. Papadaki.
Soma among the Armenians, by Robert Bedrosian.
The Sacred Narcotic Water Lily of the Nile: Nymphaea caerulea Sav., by William A. Emboden, Jr.
Plant Hallucinogens: Sacred Elements of Native Societies. This is an HTML version of a beautiful and rare chart issued by Richard Evans Schultes and illustrated by Elmer W. Smith in 1980. Schultes, a renowned ethnobotanist and Director of the Harvard Botanical Museum, describes entheogens used in the Old and New Worlds by indigenous peoples. Amplified to include links to Google Images and Wikipedia entries.

Old World Shamanism
Shamanism and Its Connection to Iran, by Philippe Gignoux at Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Download Shamanistic and Related Phenomena in Northern and Middle India, by Rudolf Rahmann, from Anthropos, Bd. 54, H. 5./6. (1959), pp. 681-760. Download here: Shamanistic and Related Phenomena in Northern and Middle India. File size: 7.5 MB.
Download Recent Works on Shamanism. A Review Article, by Mircea Eliade, from History of Religions, vol. 1, No. 1 (Summer, 1961), pp. 152-186. Download here: Recent Works on Shamanism. A Review Article. File size: 4 MB.
Download Turkish and Mongol Shamanism in the Middle Ages, by John Andrew Boye, from Folklore, vol. 83, No. 3 (Autumn, 1972), pp. 177-193. Download here: Turkish and Mongol Shamanism in the Middle Ages. File size: 1.8 MB.
Download Kashgari on the Beliefs and Superstitions of the Turks, by Robert Dankoff. From Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 95, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar., 1975), pp. 68-80, in 14 pdf pages. Kashgari was an 11th century writer. Download here: Kashgari on the Beliefs and Superstitions of the Turks.
Download Dream Motif in Turkish Folk Stories and Shamanistic Initiation, by Ilhan Başgöz, from Asian Folklore Studies,Vol. 26, No. 1 (1967), pp. 1-18. Download here: Dream Motif in Turkish Folk Stories and Shamanistic Initiation. File size: 1.7 MB.
Download On the History of Mongolian Shamanism in Anthropological Perspective, by Klaus Hesse, from Anthropos, Bd. 82, H. 4./6. (1987), pp. 403-413. Download here: On the History of Mongolian Shamanism in Anthropological Perspective. File size: 1.4 MB.
Download Shamanism in Siberia and European Russia, Being the Second Part of “Shamanstvo,” by V. M. Mikhailovskii and Oliver Wardrop, in 74 pdf pages. This study appeared in two parts in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland vol. 24 (1895) pp. 62-100, 124-158. Both are included in the download: Shamanism in Siberia and European Russia. File size: 6.6 MB.
Download Shamanism in the Old Norse Tradition: A Theory between Ideological Camps, by Stefanie v. Schnurbein, in 24 pdf pages. From History of Religions, vol. 43, No. 2 (November 2003), pp. 116-138. Download here: Shamanism in the Old Norse Tradition.
Download Homosexualität und Transvestition im Schamanismus, by Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, from Anthropos, Bd. 65, H. 1./2. (1970), pp. 189-228, in 41 pdf pages. Download here: Homosexualität und Transvestition im Schamanismus. File size: 3.6 MB.

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Download The Wanderings of Plants and Animals from their First Home, by Victor Hehn (London, 1888), in 514 pdf pages. This important study was reissued in 1976 with additional material by James Mallory, entitled Cultivated Plants and Domesticated Animals in their Migration from Asia to Europe. Download here: The Wanderings of Plants and Animals from their First Home. File size: 10.4 MB.
Download Sino-Iranica, Chinese Contributions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran with Special Reference to the History of Cultivated Plants and Products, by Berthold Laufer (Chicago, 1919), in 465 pdf pages. Download here: Sino-Iranica. File size: 19.2 MB.
From Encyclopaedia Iranica, multiple authors: Entries on Botany, Flora, and Herbs.
Download Hashish in Islam in the 9th to 18th Century, by Gabriel G. Nahas. From the Bulletin of the N.Y. Academy of Medicine 1982 December; 58(9), pp. 814-831. Download here: Hashish in Islam in the 9th to 18th Century.
Folk-lore of Plants, by T. F. Thiselton-Dyer.

Download Folk-lore of Plants, by T. F. Thiselton-Dyer (New York, 1889), in 339 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Folk-lore of Plants. File size: 13.7 MB.

Download The Divine Origin of the Craft of the Herbalist, by E. A. Wallis Budge (London, 1928). Topics include: The old gods as herbalists and their divine medicines; the divine herbalists; water a divine element; vegetable substances of divine origin; ancient Egyptian herbals and books of medicine; holy oils and medicated unguents; Sumerian and Assyrian herbals; the Greek herbals; the Latin herbals; the herbal in Syriac; the herbal in Arabic; Coptic lists of plants; the Ethiopian (Abyssinian) herbal. 106 pdf pages. Download here: The Divine Origin of the Craft of the Herbalist. File size: 6.5 MB.
Download History of Amulets, Charms and Talismans, A Historical Investigation into their Nature and Origin by Michael Levi Rodkinson (New York, 1893), in 118 pdf pages. Download here: History of Amulets, Charms and Talismans. File size: 2.4 MB.
Download The Flora of the Assyrian Monuments and its Outcomes, by E. Bonavia (Westminster, 1894), in 259 pdf pages with numerous illustrations. Contents include: Flora of the Assyrian Monuments of the British Museum and Others; Sacred Trees of Assyria; the Cone-Fruit; The Lotus; The Evil Eye; The Trident; Notes on Some Cylinders; Conclusions. Download here: The Flora of the Assyrian Monuments. File size: 3 MB.
Download Enquiry on Plants, by Theophrastus (c. 371- c. 287 B.C.), translated by Arthur Hort in two volumes (New York, 1916): volume 1, in 517 pdf pages. File size: 7.8 MB; volume 2, in 526 pdf pages. File size: 8.7 MB.
Download On Winds and Weather Signs, by Theophrastus, translated by Jas. G. Wood, edited by G. J. Symons (London, 1894), in 109 pdf pages. Download here: On Winds and Weather Signs. File size: 3.6 MB.
Download Natural History, by Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.), translated by John Bostock in six searchable volumes (London, 1855). Volumes 3, 4, and 5 in particular deal with plants:

volume 1, 538 pdf pages. File size: 34.8 MB. Stars, planets, aerial phenomena, world geography; volume 2, 589 pdf pages. File size: 35.7 MB. Geography continued, humanity, life cycles, terrestrial animals, fish, birds;
volume 3, 565 pdf pages. File size: 34.2 MB. Insects, trees;
volume 4, 551 pdf pages. File size: 33.5 MB. Grains, plants, remedies from plants, flowers, properties of plants and fruits, remedies from cultivated trees;
volume 5, 588 pdf pages. File size: 39.2 MB. Remedies from forest trees, wild plants, remedies classified by disease, remedies from living creatures, remedies from waters;
volume 6 [includes General Index], 562 pdf pages. File size: 36.1 MB. Remedies from aquatic animals, history of metals, history of paintings and colors, stones, and precious stones.

Download The Zoological Section of the Nuzhatu-l-Qulûb (a Persian Compendium of Science, 1340 A. D.), by J. Stephenson, from Isis, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Dec., 1928), pp. 285-315, in 32 pdf pages. Contents include descriptions of real and imaginary animals, diseases, and remedies from animals. Download here: The Zoological Section of the Nuzhatu-l-Qulûb.
Additional material is available on other pages of this website: Ethnobotany, and
Ancient Sexuality.


Star-Names and Their Meanings, by Richard Hinckley Allen, at LacusCurtius.
Download Star Names and Their Meanings, by Richard Hinckley Allen (London, 1899), in 599 pdf pages. Download here: Star Names and Their Meanings. File size: 16.5 MB.

Download Star Lore of All Ages, A Collection of Myths, Legends, and Facts Concerning the Constellations of the Northern Hemisphere, by William Tyler Olcott (New York, 1911), in 613 pdf pages. Download here: Star Lore of All Ages. File size: 12.6 MB. Download Sun Lore of All Ages, A Collection of Myths and Legends Concerning the Sun and Its Worship, by William Tyler Olcott (New York, 1914), in 433 pdf pages. Download here: Sun Lore of All Ages. File size: 7.4 MB.
Download Myths and Marvels of Astronomy, by Richard Anthony Proctor (London, 1893), in 394 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Myths and Marvels of Astronomy. File size: 14.4 MB.
Download The Curious Lore of Precious Stones, by George Frederick Kunz (Philadelphia, 1913), in 534 pdf pages. Download here: The Curious Lore of Precious Stones. File size: 18 MB.
Download The Magic of Jewels and Charms, by George Frederick Kunz (Philadelphia, 1915), in 566 pdf pages. Download here: The Magic of Jewels and Charms. File size: 16.3 MB.
Download Rings for the Finger, by George Frederick Kunz (Philadelphia, 1917), in 533 pdf pages. From earliest times to the present, describing the origin, early making, materials, archaeology, history, for affection, for love, for engagement, for wedding, commemorative, mourning, etc. Download here: Rings for the Finger. File size: 14.8 MB.

Also by Kunz: Download The Book of the Pearl, by George Frederick Kunz and Charles Hugh Stevenson (New York, 1908), in 828 pdf pages. Download here: The Book of the Pearl. File size: 30.6 MB.
Download Ivory and the Elephant in Art, in Archaeology, and in Science (New York, 1916), in 720 pdf pages. Download here: Ivory and the Elephant. File size: 25.5 MB.
Download Madstones and Their Magic, in 3 pdf pages, from Science, Vol. 18, No. 459 (Nov. 20, 1891), pp. 286-287 Download here: Madstones and Their Magic.
Download Natal Stones, Sentiments and Supersitions Associated with Precious Stones (New York, n.d.), in 39 pdf pages. Download here: Natal Stones.
Download China’s Foreign Trade in Medieval Times, from Science, New Series, Vol. 38, No. 987 (Nov. 28, 1913), pp. 782-783, in 3 pdf pages. Download here: China’s Foreign Trade in Medieval Times.

Download The Diamond, a Study in Chinese and Hellenistic Folk-Lore, by Berthold Laufer (Chicago, 1915), in 89 pdf pages. Download here: The Diamond, a Study in Chinese and Hellenistic Folk-Lore. File size: 2.9 MB. Download Asbestos and Salamander, an Essay in Chinese and Hellenistic Folk-Lore, by Berthold Laufer, from T’oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Jul., 1915), pp. 299-373, in 76 pdf pages. Download here: Asbestos and Salamander, an Essay in Chinese and Hellenistic Folk-Lore. File size: 3.6 MB.

Also by Laufer: Download Jade: a Study in Chinese Archaeology and Religion, in 478 pdf pages. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, Vol. 10 (Chicago, 1912). Download here: Jade: a Study in Chinese Archaeology and Religion. File size: 62.2 MB.
Download Notes on Turquois in the East, in 599 pdf pages. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Chicago, 1913). Download here: Notes on Turquois in the East. File size: 26.1 MB.
Download Optical Lenses: I. Burning-Lenses in China and India, from T’oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 16, No. 2 (May, 1915), pp. 169-228 in 61 pdf pages. Download here: Burning-Lenses in China and India. File size: 3.1 MB.
Download The Prehistory of Aviation, in 108 pdf pages with plates and illustrations. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, Vol. 18, No. 1 (Chicago, 1928). Topics include: The Romance of Flying in Ancient China; Kites as Precursors of Aeroplanes; The Dawn of Airships in Ancient India; From Babylon and Persia to the Greeks and the Arabs; The Air Mail of Ancient Times. Download here: The Prehistory of Aviation. File size: 11.9 MB.
Download The Giraffe in History and Art, from Anthropology Leaflet, No. 27 (Chicago, 1928), pp. 1-100, in 114 pdf pages. Download here: The Giraffe in History and Art. File size: 11.7 MB.

Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues, by W. Wynn Westcott, at sacred-texts.

Download Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues, by W. Wynn Westcott (London, 1911), in 136 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues. File size: 6.3 MB.


Collections of Tales

Downloads:

The Panchatantra, translated from Sanskrit by Arthur W. Ryder (Chicago, 1925), in 484 pdf pages. Contains some of the world’s oldest folk tales, stories which were also current in ancient Egypt. Tales from the Panchatantra appear in later collections such as the Middle Eastern Kalila and Dimna, and One Thousand and One Nights. File size: 26.4 MB. Early Ideas, a Group of Hindoo Stories, collected and collated by Anaryan (Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot) (London, 1881), in 169 pdf pages. File size: 4.1 MB.
The Katha Sarit Sagara or Ocean of the Streams of Story, translated from Sanskrit by C. H. Tawney. This 11th century compilation is the largest collection of Indian tales. In two volumes: volume 1 (Calcutta, 1880), in 600 searchable pdf pages. File size: 32.3 MB; volume 2 (Calcutta, 1884), in 706 searchable pdf pages. File size: 38.3 MB.
Popular Tales of Ancient Egypt, collected and edited by Gaston Maspero, translated by C. H. W. Johns (New York, 1915), in 432 pdf pages. File size: 10.5 MB
The Story of Ahikar, from the Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Old Turkish, Greek and Slavonic Versions, by F. C. Conybeare, J. Rendel Harris, and Agnes Smith Lewis (Glasgow, 1898). English translations and texts of this wonderful tale in the aforementioned languages. The Story of Ahikar was one of the earliest works translated into Armenian, possibly the work of Mesrop or Sahak. File size: 5.5 MB.
Kalila and Dimna, or the Tales of Bidpai, translated from Arabic by Wyndham Knatchbull (Oxford, 1819), in 389 pdf pages. File size: 10 MB.
Contes arméniens, traduits de l’arménien moderne par Frédéric Macler (Paris, 1905), in 214 pdf pages. The tales are translated selections from Garegin Sruandzeants’ collection in Hamov Hodov [Delicious and Fragrant]. File size: 2.6 MB.
Notes sur la mythologie arménienne par Minas Tcheraz, in Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists (London, 1893) volume 2, pp. 822-845. Contains material collected by the author in Asia Minor. Topics include: Fire, Arev, Loussounga, Askh, Akhbour, L’Euphrate, Abres Sacres, Dragon, Cult des Ancetres, Kichermout, La Fille d’Alexandre, Magie, Vetzazarya, Les Devs, Les Peris, Al, Khebelig, Khederellee, Grogh, Gaghend, Derendas, Choudig, Gudjug, Chevod, Khondjolos. 26 pdf pages. 2.4 MB.
Histoire de Pharmani Asman traduite de l’arménien par Frédéric Macler (Paris, 1906), in 54 pdf pages. File size: 1.8 MB.
Notes de mythologie syrienne, par René Dussaud (Paris, 1903), in 210 pdf pages. File size: 9 MB.
Contes syriaques traduits de l’syriaques par Frédéric Macler (Paris, 1903). Histoire de Sindban, in 115 pdf pages. File size: 2.8 MB.
The Book of Sindibad, from the Persian and Arabic, by W. A. Clouston (London, 1884), in 460 pdf pages. File size: 8.1 MB.
The Bakhtyar Nama, a Persian Romance, William Ouseley (trans.) and W. A. Clouston, editor (London, 1883), in 297 pdf pages. File size: 4.8 MB.
Flowers from a Persian Garden and Other Papers, by W. A. Clouston (London, 1890). Middle Eastern tales and legends, including unusual Biblical and Rabbinical tales, in 395 pdf pages. File size: 6.4 MB.
Persian Tales, collected and translated from Kermani and Bakhtiari by D. L. R. Lorimer and E. O. Lorimer (London, 1919), in 436 pdf pages. File size: 8.8 MB.
The Adventures of Hatim Tai, translated from Persian by Duncan Forbes (London, 1830), in 242 pages. Oriental Translation Fund. File size: 7.6 MB.
The Mesnevi of Jalal al-Din Rumi and tales of the Sufi adepts, translated from Persian by James W. Redhouse (London, 1881), in 470 pdf pages. Trübner’s Oriental Series. File size: 11.8 MB.
Muslim Saints and Mystics, by the 13th century Farid al-Din Attar, translated from Persian by A. J. Arberry (Chicago, 1966), in 428 pdf pages. Includes a lengthy introductory essay. File size: 1.4 MB.
The Tooti-Nameh, or Tales of a Parrot, translated into English by F. Gladwin (London, 1801), in 347 pdf pages. Farsi text with English translation. File size: 8.1 MB.
A Collection of Proverbs, and Proverbial Phrases in the Persian and Hindoostanee Languages, compiled and translated by Thomas Roebuck (Calcutta, 1824), in 847 pdf pages. Farsi text with English translation. File size: 24 MB.
Popular Tales and Fictions, their Migrations and Transformations, by W. A. Clouston (London, 1907). In two volumes: volume 1, in 512 pdf pages. File size: 15.3 MB; volume 2, in 532 pdf pages. File size: 15.9 MB.
Specimens of the Popular Poetry of Persia, as Found in the Adventures and Improvisations of Kurroglou, the Bandit-Minstrel of Northern Persia, and in the Songs of the People Inhabiting the Shores of the Caspian Sea, collected and translated by Alexander Chodzko (London, 1842), in 616 pdf pages. Oriental Translation Fund. File size: 12.6 MB.
Turkish Fairy Tales and Folk Tales, collected by I. Kunos (London, 1896), R. Nisbet Bain, translator, in 319 pdf pages. File size: 6.8 MB.
The History of the Forty Vezirs, by Sheykh-Zada (London, 1887), E. J. W. Gibb, translator, in 511 pdf pages. File size: 6.5 MB.
Ottoman Wonder Tales, translated and edited by Lucy M. J. Garnett (London, 1915), in 324 pdf pages. File size: 5.4 MB.
Greek Wonder Tales, edited by Lucy M. J. Garnett (London, 1913), in 288 pdf pages. File size: 8.7 MB.
New Folklore Researches: Folk-verse (London, 1896), in 537 pdf pages. Greek Folk Poesy: annotated translations from the whole cycle of Romaic folk-verse and folk-prose, by Lucy M. J. Garnett; edited with essays on the science of folklore, Greek folkspeech, and the survival of paganism, by J. S. Stuart-Glennie. File size: 6.5 MB.
Digenes Akrites (Oxford, 1970; repr. of 1956 edition), John Mavrogordato, editor. Greek text, English translation, and extensive introductory study of a fascinating 10th century Byzantine epic, in 353 searchable pdf pages. File size: 10.5 MB.
Also available: Les exploits de Digénis Akritas, épopée byzantine du dixième siècle (Paris, 1875), in 455 pdf pages. Greek text with French translation and notes by C. Sathas and E. Legrand. File size: 10.4 MB.

Traditions populaires de l’Asie Mineure, par E. H. Carnoy et Jean Nicolaides (Paris, 1889), in 398 pdf pages. This is tome XXVIII in the series Les littératures populaires de toutes les nations. File size: 5.2 MB.
The Golden Maiden and other folk tales and fairy stories told in Armenia, by A. G. Seklemian (New York, 1898). The tales are drawn from Sruandzeants’ collections Hamov Hodov [Delicious and Fragrant], Mananay [Manna], and Seklemian’s own collection made in the Karin/Ezerum area. 260 pdf pages. File size: 4.4 MB.
Armenian Legends and Festivals, by Louis A. Boettiger (Minneapolis, 1920), in 117 pdf pages. File size: 3.6 MB.
Armenian Proverbs and Sayings, translated into English by Kevork Bayan (Venice, 1889), in 73 pdf pages. File size: 1.2 MB.
Armenian Popular Songs, translated into English by Levon (Ghewond) Alishan (Venice, 1891), in 101 pdf pages. Armenian text with English translation of songs, some of which date from the Middle Ages and have historic and folkloric value. File size: 1.7 MB.
Notes from Armenia, in Illustration of “The Golden Bough”, by J. Rendel Harris, from Folklore, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Dec. 25, 1904), pp. 427-446, in 21 pdf pages. File size: 1.6 MB.
Tobit and Jack the Giant-Killer, by Francis Hindes Groome, from Folklore, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Sep., 1898), pp. 226-244, in 20 pdf pages.
Märchen und Sagen der Bukowinaer und Siebenbürger Armenier, by Heinrich von Wlislocki (Hamburg, 1891), in 210 pdf pages. File size: 4.5 MB.
Ar’akk’ Lafondeni [The Fables of La Fontaine], Anton Garagashean, translator (Vienna, 1894), in 501 pdf pages. File size: 5.4 MB.
Patmut’iwn ew xratk’ Xikaray imastnots’ [The Story and Advice of Ahikar the Wise], A. A. Martirosyan, editor. This is the critical edition of the Classical Armenian versions of an ancient wisdom tale. In two volumes: volume 1 (Erevan, 1969), in 346 pdf pages. File size: 9.9 MB; volume 2 (Erevan, 1972), in 280 pdf pages. File size: 11.5 MB.
Sborniki pritch Vardana [Zhoghovatsoyk’ ar’akats Vardanay/Collections of the Fables of Vardan] (Petersburg, 1899). This is the Classical Armenian text of the medieval fables of Vardan Aygekts’i (c. 1170 – 1235), with a study and Russian translation by N. Marr, in 1306 pdf pages. File size: 45.9 MB.
Choix fables de Vartan [Hate”ntir ar’akk’ Vardanay vardapeti] (Paris, 1825). Classical Armenian text and French translation of forty-five of Vardan’s fables, in 115 pdf pages. File size: 2.6 MB.
Zhoghovatsoyk’ ar’akats’ Vardanay niwt’er patmut’ean hayots’ mijindarean matenagrutean [Collections of Vardan’s Fables, Materials for the History of Medieval Armenian Literature], by Y. Tashean (Venice, 1900). This is a discussion of Marr’s three-volume collection, with some selections. Azgayin matenadaran series, volume 36, in 233 pdf pages. File size: 3.1 MB.
Girk’ ar’aspelabanut’eants’ or asi Aghue’sagirk’ [The Book of Fables, Called the Fox Book], Oskan Erewants’i, editor (Ejmiatsin, 1668). This work opens with the Ashxarhats’uyts’ of Anania Shirakets’i, and has a collection of Vardan’s fables as the second portion, in 325 pdf pages. File size: 12.1 MB.
Ar’akk’ ew otanawork’ xratakank’ [Fables and Moral Poems] (Venice, 1790). The fables of Mxit’ar Gosh, followed by other writings, in 225 pdf pages. File size: 6.8 MB.
Ar’akk’ Mxit’aray Goshi [Fables of Mxit’ar Gosh] (Venice, 1854), in 94 pdf pages. Includes Ar’akk’ Oghompianu [Fables of Oghompianos]. File size: 4.2 MB.
Basni srednevekovoi Armenii [Fables of Medieval Armenia] (Moscow, 1956), in 173 pdf pages. Russian-language selection of tales by Gosh, Aygekts’i, and Oghompianos, translated by Iosip/Hovsep Orbeli. Includes a lengthy introductory essay. File size: 7.4 MB.
Physiologus, from the series Spicilegium Solesmense prepared by Jean-Baptiste Pitra (Paris, 1855), in 740 pdf pages. Classical Armenian, Greek, and Latin texts of a bestiary, perhaps dating from the 2nd-4th centuries. The Armenian translation was made in the 5th century. These tales of real and fantastic animals, usually with a Christian moral attached, are attributed to a variety of Fathers including Epiphanius, Basil, and St. Peter of Alexandria. Download includes all three volumes in one file. File size: 51.4 MB.

Ch. Cahier’s study and French translation of the Armenian text with scholarly notes is available on pp. 106-164 of the series Noveaux mélanges d’archéologie d’histoire et de littérature sur le moyen age (Paris, 1874). Download is the entire volume: Physiologus, in 382 pdf pages. File size: 50.1 MB.

*Armenian Legends and Poems, by Zabelle C. Boyajian (1916), at sacred-texts.
The Golden Maiden and Other Folk Tales and Fairy Stories Told in Armenia, by A. G. Seklemian (New York, 1898), at rbedrosian.com.
The Fables of Mxit’ar Gosh, by the late 12th to early 13th century Armenian vardapet and teacher, at rbedrosian.com.

Download The Fables of Mxit’ar Gosh, translated from Classical Armenian by Robert Bedrosian (New York, 1987/2002), zipped HTML files. Download here: The Fables of Mxit’ar Gosh.

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The Fables of Aesop, at sacred-texts.

Search Aesop’s Fables

Fascinating ancient and medieval lore about real and imaginary animals is available at David Badke’s Medieval Bestiary site. The entries contain translated passages from Classical Greek and Latin sources (where available), bibliographies, and downloadable studies.

Search Medieval Bestiary

The Fairy Mythology Illustrative of the Romance and Superstition of Various Countries, by Thomas Keightley, at sacred-texts.

Download The Fairy Mythology, by Thomas Keightley (London, 1905), in 581 pdf pages. Download here: The Fairy Mythology. File size: 20.1 MB.

The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries, by W. Y. Evans-Wentz, at sacred-texts.

Download The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries, by W. Y. Evans-Wentz (Oxford, 1911), in 562 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. File size: 26.5 MB.

The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns and Fairies, by Robert Kirk and Andrew Lang, at sacred-texts.

Download The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns and Fairies, by Robert Kirk and Andrew Lang (London, 1893), in 180 pdf pages. Download here: The Secret Commonwealth. File size: 4.1 MB.

Download Fians, Fairies and Picts, by David MacRitchie (London, 1893), in 121 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Fians, Fairies and Picts. File size: 6 MB.

The Religion of the Ancient Celts, by J. A. MacCulloch, at sacred-texts.

Download The Religion of the Ancient Celts, by J. A. MacCulloch (Edinburgh, 1911), in 430 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Religion of the Ancient Celts. File size: 14 MB.

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Download The Romance of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes, translated from the Armenian version with an introduction by Albert M. Wolohojian (New York, 1969), in 198 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Romance of Alexander the Great. File size: 6.1 MB.
Download The History of Alexander the Great, being the Syriac version of the Pseudo-Callisthenes. Syriac text, English translation, and notes by E. A. Wallis Budge (London, 1889), in 701 pdf pages. Download here: The History of Alexander the Great. File size: 15.2 MB.
Download The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, being a series of translations of the Ethiopic Histories of Alexander by the Pseudo-Callisthenes, by E. A. Wallis Budge (London, 1896), in 696 pages. Download here: The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. File size: 16.4 MB.
One Thousand and One Nights, Richard F. Burton, translator.
The Laughable Stories of Bar-Hebraeus Collected by Mar Gregory John Bar-Hebraeus, Maphrian of the East from A.D, 1264 to 1286. English translation of the Syriac text by E. A. W. Budge, (London, 1897). At sacred-texts.

Download The Laughable Stories of Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac text edited with an English translation by E. A. W. Budge, (London, 1897), in 408 pdf pages. Download here: The Laughable Stories of Bar-Hebraeus. File Size: 16.7 MB.

Download Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, by Sabine Baring-Gould (London, 1877), in 682 searchable pdf pages. Several of the myths take place in Armenia, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, and China. Download here: Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. File size: 19.9 MB.

Also by Baring-Gould: Download The Book of Were-Wolves (London, 1865), in 293 searchable pdf pages. Ancient and medieval folklore about lycanthropy. Download here: The Book of Were-Wolves. File size: 7.9 MB.

Download The Wonders of the East [Mirabilia Descripta], by Friar Jordanus (c. 1330) (London, 1863), in 113 pdf pages. This is volume 31 of the Hakluyt Society publications, translated from Latin by Henry Yule. Jordanus, a missionary who resided in India for some 20 years, narrates marvels and wonders he either saw, thought he saw, or heard about during his travels. Chapters on wonders in Armenia, Georgia, Arran, Mughan, Persia, Turkey, India, Arabia, Central Asia and elsewhere. Fascinating and highly entertaining. Download here: Wonders of the East. File size: 2.8 MB. Download Travellers’ Tales, a Book of Marvels, by H. C. Adams (London, 1883), in 403 pdf pages. The author has collected some astounding examples of strangeness: ancient, medieval, and modern, reported by travellers from Herodotus to Baron von Haxthausen. Categories include people, beasts, fish, insects, plants, monsters, lands, customs, and more. Download here: Travellers’ Tales, a Book of Marvels. File size: 9.8 MB.
Gypsy Folk-Tales, by Francis Hindes Groome (London, 1899) at sacred-texts.

Download Gypsy Folk-Tales, by Francis Hindes Groome (London, 1899), in 387 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Gypsy Folk-Tales. File size: 16.4 MB. Also available:
Download Accounts of the Gypsies of India, by David MacRitchie (London, 1886), in 273 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Accounts of the Gypsies of India. File size: 9.1 MB.

Forty-four Turkish Fairy Tales, by Ignacz Kunos (London, 1913) at sacred-texts. Georgian Folk Tales, translated by Marjory Wardrop (London, 1894) at sacred-texts.

Download Georgian Folk Tales translated by Marjory Wardrop (London, 1894), in 200 pdf pages. Download here: Georgian Folk Tales. File size: 3.3 MB.

Download Amiran-Darejaniani, a Cycle of Medieval Georgian Tales Traditionally Ascribed to Mose Khoneli, translated with scholarly notes by R. H. Stevenson (Oxford, 1958), in 267 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Amiran-Darejaniani. File size: 10.2 MB.
The Man in the Panther’s Skin, by Shota Rustaveli (1172-1216) translated by Marjory Wardrop (London, 1912), is Georgia’s national epic. Also at sacred-texts: The Man in the Panther’s Skin.

Download The Man in the Panther’s Skin translated by Marjory Wardrop (London, 1912), in 300 pdf pages. Download here: The Man in the Panther’s Skin. File size: 14.1 MB.

Download Visramiani, the Story of the Loves of Vis and Ramin, translated from Georgian by Oliver Wardrop (London, 1914), in 430 pdf pages. This is an English translation of a Persian romance, believed to date from the Parthian era. Download here: Visramiani. File size: 21.2 MB.
Download The Balavariani (Barlaam and Josaphat), a Buddhist Tale from the Christian East, translated from Classical Georgian by David Marshall Lang with scholarly notes. Introduction by Ilia V. Abuladze (Berkeley, 1966), in 180 searchable pdf pages. Download here: The Balavariani. File size: 6.9 MB.
Download Le Miriani, ou Histoire du roi Miri conte géorgien. Georgian text, French translation and notes by M. Brosset (Paris, 1836), in 124 pdf pages. Download here: Le Miriani. File size: 3.1 MB.
Download Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints, translation and commentary by David Marshall Lang (London, 1956; repr. New York, 1976), in 177 searchable pdf pages. Download here: Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints. File size: 5.2 MB.

All seven volumes of The Golden Legend, Lives of the Saints by Jacobus de Voragine (1230-1298) may be read online at saintwiki.com: volume 1; volume 2; volume 3; volume 4; volume 5; volume 6; volume 7; Glossary.

Search saintwiki.com

All twelve volumes of Alban Butler’s Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints may be read online at bartlby.com. The volumes are by month: January; February; March; April; May; June; July; August; September; October; November; December;

Alphabetic Index to All Saints
Chronologic Index by Century Search Butler’s Lives… at bartlby.com

Download Legends of Our Lady Mary the Perpetual Virgin and Her Mother Hanna, translated by E. A. Wallis Budge from Ethiopic manuscripts now at the British Museum (London, 1922), in 470 pdf pages. Download here: Legends of Our Lady Mary the Perpetual Virgin and Her Mother Hanna. File size: 7.7 MB.

The only freely available and complete English translation of Iran’s magnificent epic, the Shahnameh/Shahnama or Book of Kings, was done by the brothers Arthur and Edmond Warner. The Warners’ enormous translation was published in nine volumes between 1905 and 1925. Although in verse, most sections also have prose explanations and good notes. Trübner’s Oriental Series.

Download the Shahnameh: volume 1. File size: 12.5 MB;
volume 2. File size: 17.4 MB;
volume 3. File size: 13.0 MB;
volume 4. File size: 13.2 MB;
volume 5. File size: 12.2 MB;
volume 6. File size: 15.2 MB;
volume 7. File size: 23.1 MB;
volume 8. File size: 18.0 MB;
volume 9. File size: 17.2 MB.

A French translation of the Kurdish Sharaf-nameh, translated from Persian by Francois Bernard Charmoy (St. Petersburg, 1868-1875) contains much of interest for folklore and heterodox faiths. It is two volumes in four parts:

Download the Sharaf-nameh: volume 1-1. File size: 31.5 MB;
volume 1-2. File size: 18.0 MB;
volume 2-1. File size: 19.9 MB;
volume 2-2. File size: 27.8 MB.


Thanks to Google Books and others, the following precious Armenian-language works are available as free pdf files.
Downloads:
Toros Aghbar [Brother Toros], by Garegin Sruandzeants’/Karekin Servantsian, a renowned Armenian folklorist and ethnographer (1840-1892). The download includes vol. 1 (Constantinople, 1879), and vol. 2 (Constantinople, 1884). This massive study of Armenian-populated areas of western historical Armenia and Turkey is subtitled “Hayastani Chambord” (Traveller of Armenia). The author travelled throughout Asia Minor visiting Armenian communities in Samson, Bafra, Sinope, Marzuan, Amasia, Zile, Tokat, Sevast, Severik, Teprike, Kasmon, Akn, Arabkir, Malatya, Trabizon, Gumishane, Erznka, Kamakh, Kapan mate and Kharpert, Chimishkadsak, Palu, Tigranakert, Baghesh/Bitlis, Van, Manazkert, and elsewhere. He recorded noteworthy folk tales, legends, and riddles, and additionally described churches and monasteries, providing diocesan information and population figures for the Armenian communities. This invaluable study also describes the important monastic and church libraries and their manuscripts, and colophons. It includes drawings of Armenian cuneiform and even tattoos. 861 pdf pages. File size: 19 MB. Mananay [Manna], by Garegin Sruandzeants’ (Constantinople, 1876). Folklore and folk tales mostly from the Van area. Includes nine folk tales, songs, riddles, bird language, magic, amulets. There are also short lexicons of plant names, agricultural equipment and village vocabulary. 471 pdf pages. File size: 8.9 MB.
Hamov Hodov [Delicious and Fragrant], by Garegin Sruandzeants’ (Tiflis, 1904). The ethnographer’s descriptions of village life, folk tales, songs, and proverbs. Includes a lexicon for dialects, in 445 pdf pages. File size: 7.3 MB.
Grots’ u brots’ [Written and Spoken], by Garegin Sruandzeants’ (Constantinople, 1910), in 94 pdf pages. File size: 5.4 MB.
Sasunts’i Dawit’ kam Mheri dur’ [David of Sasun, or the Gate of Mher], by Garegin Sruandzeants’ (Constantinople, 1910), in 46 pdf pages. File size: 2.7 MB.
Hay zhoghovrdakan diwts’aznakan vepe” [The Armenian National Epic]. This is a study of the Armenian epic David of Sasun/Sassoun by the great ethnographer Bagrat Xalat’eants’/Khalat’iants’ (Vienna, 1903) in 99 pdf pages. Azgayin matenadaran series, volume 42. File size: 1.8 MB.
Ve’pk’ hnoyn hayastani [Epics of Ancient Armenia], by Mkrtich’ Emin (Moscow, 1850), in 113 pdf pages. File size: 2.9 MB.
Recherches sur le paganisme arménien, by Mkrtich’ (Jean-Baptiste) Emin (Paris, 1864), in 65 pdf pages. Translation of Emin’s Russian-language work by A. De Stadler. File size: 2.5 MB.
Izsliedovaniia i stati N.O. Emina po armianskoi mifologii, arkheologii, istorii i istorii literatury (za 1858-1884 gg.) [Studies and Articles of N. O. Emin on Armenian Mythology, Archaeology, History, and the History of Literature during the years 1858-1884] (Moscow, 1896), in 438 pdf pages. A treasure trove of Emin’s Russian articles, including chapters on many of the Armenian gods and myths. File size: 13.8 MB.
A Probable Structure of a Protoform of the Ancient Armenian Song of Vahagn, by Vyacheslav V. Ivanov from Aramazd: Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies 6(2011) in 19 pdf pages.
Anahit dits’uhu pashtamunk’e” [The Cult of the Goddess Anahit], by K. V. Melik-Pashayan (Erevan, 1963), in 168 pdf pages. Includes map and plates. File size: 5.9 MB.
Mi hin pashtamunk’i hetk’ere” hayastanum [Traces of an Ancient Cult in Armenia], by Nicholas Adontz, in 15 pdf pages. This article appeared in Hayastani patmut’yun [History of Armenia] (Erevan, 1972), pp. 370-382, an Armenian translation of Adontz’ Histoire d’Arménie (Paris, 1946).
Avandapatum [Armenian Traditions], by Aram Ghanalanyan (Erevan, 1969), in 757 pdf pages. One of the best. Includes map and plates. File size: 32.9 MB.
Hay zhoghovrdakan vipergnere” ev patmakan ergayin banahyusut’yune” [Armenian Epic Folk Songs and Historic Folklore in Songs], by Grigor A. Grigoryan (Erevan, 1972), in 398 pdf pages. File size: 13.8 MB.
Hay mijnadaryan zruyts’ner [Medieval Armenian Tales], by Armenuhi Srapyan (Erevan, 1969), in 419 pdf pages. File size: 12.3 MB.
Irani herosnere hay zhoghovrdi me’j [Iranian Heroes among the Armenians], by Bagrat Xalat’eants’/Khalat’eants’ (Paris, 1901), in 94 pdf pages. File size: 2.2 MB.
Echos de légendes épiques iraniennes dans les “lettres” de Grigor Magistros, by B. L. Tchukasizian, from the journal Revue des études arméniennes 1(1964) pp. 321-329. French translation of the Russian original which appeared in Problemy vostokovedeniya, 1960, No. 3, pp. 150-155.
Der armenische Volksglaube, by Manuk Abeghian (Leipzig, 1899), in 140 pdf pages. File size: 2.3 MB.
Hay zhoghovrdakan ar’aspelnere” M. Khorenats’u Hayots’ patmut’ean me’j [Armenian Folk Myths in Movses Khorenats’i’s History of the Armenians], by Manuk Abeghyan (Vagharshapat, 1899), in 609 pdf pages. File size: 16.2 MB.
Erker I [Works I], by Manuk Abeghyan (Erevan, 1966), in 597 pdf pages. Contents of volume 1 of Abeghyan’s collected works include his magisterial study of Armenian gods, myths, legends, the motifs found in ancient Armenian literature, as well as his study of the folk epic David of Sassoun. File size: 11 MB.
“Vishapner” kochvats kot’oghnern ibrev Astghik-Derketo dits’uhu ardzanner [The Obelisks Called “Vishaps” as Monuments to the Goddess Astghik-Derketo], by Manuk Abeghyan. From Erker E’ [Works 7] (Erevan, 1975), pp. 103-175 with six plates, in 82 pdf pages. File size: 5.7 MB.
Mijnadaryan aghandneri tsagman ev zargats’man patmut’yunits’ [From the History of the Origin and Development of Medieval Sects], by E. G. Ter-Minasyan (Erevan, 1968), in 240 pdf pages. File size: 8.1 MB.
Hin hawatk’ kam het’anosakan kro’nk’ Hayots’ [The Ancient Faith or Pagan Religion of the Armenians]. Written by the renowned 19th century polymath Levon (Ghewond) Alishan, this work has been highly praised and extensively used by mythologists and folklorists since its publication (Venice, 1910). Earlier, it had been serialized from 1895 in the journal Hande’s Amso’reay. Topics include: nature worship, worship of celestial bodies, animal worship, monsters, spirits, mythological heroes, pagan gods, magic, charms/divination, the next world, and cult objects. A major source for the folk beliefs, customs, myths, and history of the Armenian Highlands. 556 pdf pages. File size: 27.6 MB.
Hayastan yar’aj k’an zlineln Hayastan [Armenia Before Becoming Armenia], by Levon (Ghewond) Alishan, (Venice, 1904). Alishan’s remarkable ideas about the prehistory of the Armenian Highlands, mostly based on the Old Testament and Armenian legends. 291 pdf pages. File size: 5.5 MB.
Haybusak [Armenian Botany], by Levon (Ghewond) Alishan (Venice, 1895), in 697 pdf pages. An invaluable encyclopedic work on the flora of the Armenian highlands. This massive study contains alphabetical entries for the major plants, trees, shrubs, as well as fungi. Many entries are accompanied by gorgeous, life-like drawings. There is also precious anecdotal evidence of these plants’ usage by the Armenians of the 19th century and before. Latin, French, Turkish and Arabic names (the last two in Armenian characters) appear in cross-referenced indices at the back. This is a major source for the study of Armenian ethnobotany. File size: 17.4 MB.
Shirak, Teghagrut’iwn patkerats’oyts’ [Illustrated Topographical Study of Shirak] (Venice, 1881), in 217 pdf pages. File size: 51.9 MB.
Sisakan, Teghagrut’iwn Siwneats’ ashxarhi [Sisakan, Topography of the Land of Siwnik’] (Venice, 1893). Alishan’s thorough study of the twelve districts of Siwink’ in eastern historical Armenia. Topics include geography, topography, natural resources, flora, fauna, history, current conditions, customs, folklore, and much more. Lavishly illustrated with drawings, and numerous photographs unavailable elsewhere, in 642 pdf pages. File size: 70.8 MB.
Teghagir hayots’ metsats’ [Topography of Greater Armenia], by Levon (Ghewond) Alishan (Venice, 1855), in 121 pdf pages. File size: 18.5 MB.
Sisuan: hamagrut’iwn Haykakan Kilikioy ew Lewon Metsagorts [Sisuan: a Study of Armenian Cilicia and Levon the Magnificent] (Venice, 1885). Historico-philological study of Cilicia including natural resources, folklore, flora and fauna, in 674 pdf pages. File size: 68.9 MB.
Arshaloys k’ristoneut’ean Hayots’ [The Dawn of Christianity among the Armenians], by Levon (Ghewond) Alishan (Venice, 1901), in 304 pdf pages. File size: 4.3 MB.
Levon (Ghewond) Alishan’s Hushikk’ hayreneats’ hayots’ [Memories of the Armenian Homeland] in two volumes: volume 1 (Venice, 1869), in 574 pdf pages. File size: 12.1 MB; volume 2 (Venice, 1870), in 602 pdf pages. File size: 11.5 MB.
Bhagavadgita kam eranelu erge” [The Bhagavad Gita, or the Celestial Song], translated from Sanskrit by Hrach’eay Achar’ean (Vagharshapat, 1911), in 70 pdf pages. File size: 5.6 MB.
Ankanon girk’ hin ktakaranats’ [Uncanonical Books of the Old Testament]. Sargis Hovsep’eants’, editor. Classical Armenian text (Venice, 1896). File size: 8.3 MB.
English translation of the above: Uncanonical Writings of the Old Testament, translated into English from Classical Armenian manuscripts by Rev. J. Issaverdens (Venice, 1900). Includes some rarities: The Book of Adam, The History of Assaneth, The History of Moses, The Deaths of the Prophets, Concerning King Solomon, A Short History of the Prophet Elias, Concerning the Prophet Jeremiah, The Vision of Enoch the Just, The Testaments of the XII Patriarchs, The Third Book of Esdras, and Inquiries Made by the Prophet Esdras. File size: 11.5 MB.

Usumnasirut’iwnk’ hin ktakarani anvawer grots’ vray [Studies on the Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament], by Barsegh Sargisean (Venice, 1898), in 509 pdf pages. File size: 25.6 MB.
Ankanon girk’ nor ktakaranats’ [Uncanonical Books of the New Testament]. Classical Armenian text, in two volumes: volume 1 (Venice, 1898), Esayi Tayets’i, editor, in 553 pdf pages. File size: 7.3 MB; volume 2 (Venice, 1904), Kerovbe Chrak’ean, editor, in 533 pdf pages. File size: 7.2 MB.
Bar’aran surb grots’ handerdz patkerok’ [Illustrated Dictionary of the Bible] (Constantinople, 1881). An extensive and remarkably fine Bible dictionary in Armenian, with tables, maps and illustrations. This anonymous work in 707 pdf pages is more thorough than and, we believe, superior to the famous English-language Dictionary of the Bible (1888) by Dr. William Smith. File size: 31.4 MB.
Ganjak. This is a study of the district of Gandzak (Kirovabad/modern Ganja), an area which frequently passed back and forth between Armenian and Aghuanian states, in the pre-Turkic period. The bulk of the study concentrates on the 19th-20th centuries when Armenians were still an important part of the population. The author, the renowned ethnographer/folklorist Ervand Lalayan (1864-1931), founded the Armenian Ethnographic Society (1901) as well as the scholarly journal Azgagrakan Handes [Ethnographic Review] (1895-1916). Topics include: 1. Historical Survey (large section on the Armenian Melik families); 2. Topography: noteworthy Armenian villages, monasteries, fortresses, German settlements, Russian Molakan settlements, Turkish villages (descriptions include population statistics); 3. Ethnography: dwellings of Armenians; clothing and ornaments; family system and customs; beliefs. This download includes both volume 1 (Tiflis, 1900) and volume 2 (Tiflis, 1901), in 324 pdf pages. Some photographs by Lalayan. File size: 31.2 MB.
Javaxk’, by Ervand Lalayan, extracted from the journal Azgagrakan Handes [Ethnographic Review] volume 1 (Shushi, 1895), pp. 138-409). Topics include: 1. Historical Survey; 2. Topography; 3. Antiquities; 4. Residents; 5. Statistical information; 6. Economic Situation; 7. Popular enlightenment; 8. Dwellings of Armenian peasants; 9. Clothing and ornaments; 10. Family system and customs; 11. Beliefs. 272 pdf pages. Some photographs by Lalayan. File size: 17.8 MB.
Zangezur, by Ervand Lalayan (Tiflis, 1899), in 133 pdf pages. Topics include: 1. Historical Survey; 2. Historical traditions; 3. Topography; 4. Residents; 5. Dwellings; 6. Clothing and ornaments; 7. Family system and customs; 8. Important feasts; 9. Popular songs. File size: 6.7 MB.
Artsakh, by Makar Barxutareants’ (Baku, 1895), in 773 pdf pages. An ethnographic and historico-geographical study of Artsakh (Nagorno Karabagh). Descriptions of physical features, natural resources, flora and fauna, villages, churches, monasteries, social institutions, and cultural life. File size: 11.3 MB.
Mi k’ani o’r Arts’akhum ew Siwnik’um [A Few Days in Artsakh and Siwnik], by Lewon Sargsean (Tiflis, 1905), in 93 pdf pages. A tourist’s memoir. File size: 1.6 MB.
T’iflisets’ots’ mtavor keank’e” [Intellectual Life of the Tiflis Armenians] Georg Ter Aghek’sandrean, compiler. Tiflis Armenian Book Circle, publication #22 (Tiflis, 1886). Invaluable source book for Armenian folklore. Chapters include: prayers, songs (including children’s songs and games), chants, popular and bardic songs, folk tales, sayings, proverbs, riddles. 477 pdf pages. File size: 8.0 MB.
Atrpatakan, by E. Frangean/Frangian (Tiflis, 1905), in 321 pdf pages. An Armenian-language illustrated album showing aspects of the Armenian community of Atrpatakan (both the modern Republic of Azerbaijan, and the Iranian district of Azerbaijan) before the modern period: its history, demography (including population statistics), towns, monasteries and churches, industries, cultural and intellectual life. File size: 12.5 MB.
Tsygany [Gypsies], by K. Patkanov/Patkanean (St. Petersburg, 1887), in 160 pdf pages. Russian-language study of the Transcaucasian Gypsy groups known as Bosha and Karachi. File size: 5.2 MB.
K’rdere” Tachkats’-Hayastanum: azgagrakan niwt’er [The Kurds in Turkish Armenia: Ethnographic Materials], by Hmayeak Arameants’ (St. Petersburg, 1905), in 232 pdf pages. File size: 3.1 MB.
Sew tsovu r’usakan ezerk’e” [The Black Sea’s Russian Coastline], by K. Tiwrean (Vienna, 1895) in 221 pdf pages. Azgayin matenadaran series, volume 18. File size: 2.8 MB.
Hay bnakch’ut’iwne” Sew Tsove’n minch’ew Karin: patmakan-azgagrakan harewantsi aknark me” [The Armenian Population from the Black Sea to Karin: Historico-ethnographic Glimpse], by Y. Tashean (Vienna, 1921), in 95 pdf pages. File size: 5.2 MB.
Patmut’iwn Pontosi or e” seaw tsov [History of Pontos, which is the Black Sea], by Minas Bzhshkean (Venice, 1819), in 189 pages. Duplicate pages in the scan and some pages are out of order. File size: 6.5 MB.
Arewelean hayk’ i Puk’ovina [Eastern Armenians in Pukovina/Bukovina], by Demetrios Dan (Venice, 1891) in 99 pdf pages. Azgayin matenadaran series, volume 4. File size: 3.5 MB.
Hayk’ i Zmiwr’nia ew i shrjakays [Armenians in Smyrna and Surrounding Areas], by Yakob K’o’sean (Vienna, 1899) in 617 pdf pages. Volumes 1 and 2 together in one download. Includes photos. Azgayin matenadaran series, volumes 31 and 32. File size: 22.4 MB.
Malat’ioy teghagrakan ew azgagrakan ashkhatasirut’iwne” ew Grigor Khandzeani Malat’ioy gawar’abarbar’e” [Topographic and Ethnographic Study of Malatya and Grigor Khandzean’s Lexicon of Malatya’s Dialect], by Karapet Penne’ean (Malatya (?), 1899), in 302 pdf pages. File size: 9.7 MB.
Teghagrut’iwn Kostantnupo’lsoy ew iwr shrjakayits’ [Topography of Constantinople and Its Suburbs], by Hovhan Palagashean (Constantinople, 1885), in 69 pdf pages. Includes a list of hotels for business travellers. File size: 2.1 MB.
Kawkasean lerants’ me’j ughegrakan ew azgagrakan aknarkner [Notes on Travel and Ethnography in the Caucasian Mountains], by K. Tiwrean (Vienna, 1896) in 90 pdf pages. File size: 1.4 MB.
Nor-Naxijevane” ev Nor-Naxejevants’ik’ [Nor-Nakhichevan and Its Residents], by E. Shahaziz (Tiflis, 1903), in 199 pdf pages. This important historico-ethnographic study, originally serialized in the journal Azgagrakan Handes (volumes 7-9), describes the customs and rites of weddings, births and baptisms, deaths and burials; customs of special festivals, witchcraft, beliefs, etc. File size: 5 MB.
Hay giwghakan tune” [The Armenian Village Home] by P’arsadan Ter-Movse”sean (Vienna, 1894) in 65 pdf pages. This work describes the types of homes found in Armenian villages: their architecture, hearths, furnishings, utensils and much more. Includes floor plans and drawings. File size: 1.1 MB.
Hay ashughner [Armenian Minstrels], by Georg Axverdean/Akhverdean (Tiflis, 1903), in 589 pdf pages. File size: 4.4 MB.
Haykakan sovorut’iwnner [Armenian Customs], by Kajberuni [Gabriel Ter-Hovannisian] (Tiflis, 1903), in 147 pdf pages. File size: 3.1 MB.
Chasher ew xnchoyk’ hin hayastani me’j [Meals and Feasts in Ancient Armenia], by Vardan Hats’uni (Venice, 1912), in 522 pdf pages. File size: 12 MB.
Erdumn hin hayots’ me’j [The Oath among Ancient Armenians], by Vardan Hats’uni (Venice, 1910), in 326 pdf pages. File size: 4.4 MB.
Bats’atrut’iwn ch’ap’uts’ ew kshr’ots’ naxneats’ [Explanation of Weights and Measures Used by the Ancients], by Yarut’iwn Awgerean (Venice, 1821), in 267 pdf pages. Classical Armenian texts dealing with the topic, including by Epiphanes (including the Greek text), Xorenats’i, and Shirakats’i. File size: 9.9 MB.
Hayere’n barbar’axo’sut’iwn [Armenian Dialectology], by L. Msereants’ (Vienna, 1899), in 73 pdf pages. Azgayin matenadaran series, volume 30. File size: 1.3 MB.
Eminean azgagrakan zhoghovatsu [Emin’s Ethnographic Review], vols. 1-4 (Moscow, 1901-). Publication of the Lazaryan Institute for Oriental Languages. This volume contains P’shrank’ shiraki ambarnerits’, collected by Agh. Mxit’areants’, which is an ethnographic study divided into two parts. Part one contains folk tales, fairy tales, proverbs, sayings, and riddles from different parts of the Armenian district of Alexandropol/Shirak, many in their original dialects. Part two is a study of the customs and beliefs of Shirak. 1743 pdf pages. File size: 43.8 MB.

vols. 4-6, (Moscow, 1902) in 1294 pdf pages. Zhoghovrdakan he’k’iat’ner [Folktales] collected by S. Haykuni. File size: 34.3 MB.

Hin awandakan he’k’eat’ner Xotorjroy [Old Traditional Folk Tales from Xotorjur], compiled by M. Hajian/Hadjian/Hachean (Vienna, 1907), in 103 pdf pages. File size: 2.7 MB.
Ulnia kam Ze’yt’un, ler’nayin awan i Kilikia [Ulnia or Zeytun, a Mountain Village in Cilicia], by H. Allahvertean (Constantinople, 1884), in 225 pdf pages. This invaluable ethnographic study describes the customs, beliefs, dialect, folktales, homes, clothing, and meals of Armenian Zeytun, among many other intriguing topics. It was used as a primary source by Manuk Abeghyan in his renowned dissertation Armenian Folk Beliefs. File size: 3.5 MB.
Tsovk’-Tluk’ ew Hr’om-klay, by Babgen Kiwleserean (Vienna, 1904), in 161 pdf pages. This is a historico-geographical study of the area from Edessa (Urha/Urfa) west and southwest to the Mediterranean, including the old Armenian districts of Tsovk’-Tluk’ and Cilician Hromkla. Azgayin matenadaran series, volume 45. File size: 5.2 MB.
Kilikia [Cilicia], by Babgen Kiwleserean (Tiflis, 1896), in 53 pdf pages. File size: 1.9 MB.
Zhoghovurdin to’nats’oyts’e” [The People’s Book of Feast-Days], by Babgen Kiwleserean (Constantinople, 1901), in 101 pdf pages. File size: 1.6 MB.
Hnut’iwnk’ Aknay [Antiquities of Akn], by Y. K. Chanikean (Tiflis, 1895), in 548 pdf pages. File size: 10.7 MB.
Hnut’iwnk’ hayreneats’ i gawar’in Ernjaku [Armenian Antiquities in the District of Ernjak] by Aristakes Sedrakean (Vagharshapat, 1872), in 201 pdf pages. File size: 4.5 MB.
Angir dprut’iwn ew ar’akk’ [Unwritten Literature and Fables], by Vahan Ter-Minasean. In two volumes: volume 1 (Constantinople, 1893), in 413 pdf pages. File size: 8.9 MB; volume 2 (Constantinople, 1904), in 193 pdf pages. File size: 3.2 MB.
Usumnasirut’iwn Manik’ea-pawghikean t’onrakets’ineru aghandin ew Gr. Narekats’woy t’ughte [Research on the Manichaeo-Paulician Sect of the T’ondrakians and the Letter of Grigor of Narek]. This is the great philologist Barsegh Sargisean’s study (Venice, 1893) of a fascinating medieval Armenian dissident movement which had religious, social, and military components. 139 pdf pages. File size: 2.6 MB.
Yushardzan/Huschardzan: Festschrift aus Anlass des 100jährigen Bestandes der Mechitharisten-Kongregation in Wien (1811-1911) und des 25 Jahrganges der philologischen Monatsschrift “Handes amsorya” (1887-1911). This volume (Vienna, 1911) contains articles in German and Armenian on topics including history, linguistics, ethnography, philology, and mythology by some of the most prominent Armenists of the 19th-early 20th centuries. 470 pdf pages. File size: 23.3 MB.
Several volumes of the important journal Azgagrakan Handes [Ethnographic Review] (Shushi and Tiflis, 1895-1916) are available:

volumes 1 and 2. File size: 32.7 MB.
volume 3. File size: 29.5 MB.
volumes 6 and 7. File size: 22.9 MB.
volumes 8 and 9. File size: 22.6 MB.
volume 10. File size: 24.4 MB.


The Armenological journal Patma-banasirakan handes [Historico-Philological Journal] (Erevan, Armenia) is now Open Access. All articles are freely downloadable:
By Year
By Subject
By Author
Articles from Patma-banasirakan handes, multiple topics, periods, and authors: Folklore
Mythology
Manners and Customs
Ethnography

The journal Lraber hasarakakan gitut’yunneri [Bulletin of Social Sciences] (Erevan, Armenia) is now Open Access. All articles are freely downloadable:

By Year
By Subject
By Author
Articles from Lraber, multiple topics, periods, and authors: Folklore
Mythology
Manners and Customs


Additional Sources

Travellers’ Accounts

Accounts of travellers to the Middle East in the 17th-early 20th centuries are an under-utilized source of material for the study of Christian and Muslim communities and heterodox groups, folklore, and many other topics. The link below is a partial list of such material. These travellers encountered and commented on Armenian, Assyrian/Syriac, Greek, Georgian, Kurdish, Persian, Turkish, and other communities throughout Asia Minor, Northern Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, the Caucasus, and Western Iran.

Travellers’ Accounts: Journeys to the Armenian Highlands and Neighboring Lands


Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics

This important thirteen-volume work appeared between 1908 and 1927. It remains a major source for mythology, folklore, ritual, anthropology, and related topics. Entries were written by distinguished specialists and include extensive references and bibliographies. Thirteen volumes including an index volume, all searchable except volume 6.

Downloads:
File size: 65.3 MB. volume 1   A—Art
File size: 65.6 MB. volume 2   Arthur—Bunyan
File size: 64.4 MB. volume 3   Burial—Confessions
File size: 71.9 MB. volume 4   Confirmation—Drama
File size: 65.2 MB. volume 5   Dravidian—Fichte
File size: 76.0 MB. volume 6   Fiction—Hyksos
File size: 91.1 MB. volume 7   Hymns—Liberty
File size: 71.1 MB. volume 8   Life and Death—Mulla
File size: 103.9 MB. volume 9 Mundas—Phrygians
File size: 64.2 MB. volume 10 Picts—Sacraments
File size: 73.0 MB. volume 11 Sacrifice—Sudra
File size: 71.1 MB. volume 12 Suffering—Zwingli
File size: 47.0 MB. volume 13 Index


Mythology of All Races

The thirteen volumes of this magnificent series were issued under the editorship of Louis H. Gray, J. A. MacCulloch, and G. F. Moore between 1916 and 1932. Some of the treatments have not been surpassed.

Downloads:
File size: 14.2 MB. volume 1
Greek and Roman, by William Sherwood Fox. File size: 1.1 MB. volume 2
Eddic, by John A. MacCulloch.
File size: 13.3 MB. volume 3
Celtic, by John A. MacCulloch, and
Slavic, by Jan Machal.
File size: 25.5 MB. volume 4
Finno-Ugric, by Uno Holmberg, and
Siberian, by Uno Holmberg.
File size: 15.5 MB. volume 5
Semitic, by Stephen H. Langdon.
File size: 15.1 MB. volume 6
Indian, by A. Berriedale Keith, and
Iranian, by Albert J. Carnoy.
File size: 54 MB. volume 7
Armenian, by Mardiros Ananikian, and
African, by Alice Werner.
File size: 21 MB. volume 8
Chinese, by John C. Ferguson, and
Japanese, by Masaharu Anesaki.
File size: 8.2 MB. volume 9
Oceanic, by Roland Burrage Dixon.
File size: 10.7 MB. volume 10
North American, by Hartley Burr Alexander.
File size: 14.8 MB. volume 11
Latin American, Hartley Burr Alexander.
File size: 11.4 MB. volume 12
Egyptian, by W. Max Müller, and
Indo-Chinese, by James George Scott.
File size: 19.5 MB. volume 13
Index to volumes 1-12.

      Vishnu in Bali


The encyclopedic Dictionaries of Sir William Smith

This great 19th century classicist and lexicographer and his distinguished colleagues produced several enormous Dictionaries which remain invaluable reference works for Greek and Roman mythology, biography, antiquities, the Bible, and early Christianity. These pdf files are quite large. They are searchable, making them particularly useful.

Downloads:
File size: 110.5 MB.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, in three volumes:
File size: 108.6 MB.
volume 1 File size: 161.4 MB.
volume 2
File size: 136.8 MB.
volume 3

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, in two volumes:

File size: 122.9 MB.
volume 1 File size: 134.3 MB.
volume 2

File size: 65.2 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, in two volumes:

File size: 126.9 MB.
volume 1 File size: 118.1 MB.
volume 2

File size: 91 MB.
Dictionary of Christian Biography and literature to the end of the sixth century A.D., with an account of the principal sects and heresies.


Internet Archive

Search Internet Archive (archive.org). As an example, search on words such as Folklore or Mythology in the box below, for a list of available material. To download any of the items on that page, click on the item you want, then in the left hand frame of the page that invokes, click on “All Files: HTTP.” From the list of files that appears, choose the .pdf or .zip version for download.

Internet Archive search:


Google Books

Another excellent source for classic reference works is Google Books. These books may be downloaded from the site below in pdf format. As an example, search on words such as Mythology or Myths or Folklore in the box below, for a list of available material. To download an item from the list of available material that you retrieve: (1) click on the book’s title; (2) on the next screen (which usually shows the first page of the book), find the gear-like icon in the upper right hand portion of the screen. It is just above the “Clear Search” label. Click on the down-pointing arrrow to the right of the gear icon and select “Download PDF”. You may be asked to identify some distorted characters to confirm that you are a “real person” and not a computer program. A download dialog box should appear after you do this.
Google Books search:


Sacred Texts

This outstanding website (sacred-texts.com) was created by the late, great John Bruno Hare and is maintained and developed by his talented colleagues. It is an inexhaustible source for mythology, folklore, religion, anthropology, and countless other topics.

Sacred Texts search:


The Golden Bough, by James G. Frazer (London, 1922).
Search Frazer’s The Golden Bough
at bartleby.com

This work also is available for reading online: The Golden Bough, by James G. Frazer, at sacred-texts.


Bulfinch’s Mythology (or The Age of Fable) (London, 1913).
Search Bulfinch’s Mythology
at bartleby.com

This work also is available for reading online: The Age of Fable, by Thomas Bulfinch, at sacred-texts.


Search Encyclopaedia Iranicaat iranicaonline.org

Search Stith Thompson’s Motif-Index of Folk-Literature
(Bloomington, Indiana, 1955-1958) at ruthenia.ru/folklore

Bibliography and Abbreviations for the Motif-Index

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